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decl.c

/* Process declarations and variables for C compiler.
   Copyright (C) 1988, 92-97, 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   Contributed by Michael Tiemann (tiemann@cygnus.com)

This file is part of GNU CC.

GNU CC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
any later version.

GNU CC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU CC; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.  */


/* Process declarations and symbol lookup for C front end.
   Also constructs types; the standard scalar types at initialization,
   and structure, union, array and enum types when they are declared.  */

/* ??? not all decl nodes are given the most useful possible
   line numbers.  For example, the CONST_DECLs for enum values.  */

#include "config.h"
#include "system.h"
#include "tree.h"
#include "rtl.h"
#include "flags.h"
#include "cp-tree.h"
#include "decl.h"
#include "lex.h"
#include <signal.h>
#include "obstack.h"
#include "defaults.h"
#include "output.h"
#include "except.h"
#include "toplev.h"

#define obstack_chunk_alloc xmalloc
#define obstack_chunk_free free

extern tree builtin_return_address_fndecl;

extern struct obstack permanent_obstack;
extern struct obstack* saveable_obstack;

extern int current_class_depth;

extern tree static_ctors, static_dtors;

extern int static_labelno;

extern tree current_namespace;
extern tree global_namespace;

extern void (*print_error_function) PROTO((char *));

/* Stack of places to restore the search obstack back to.  */
   
/* Obstack used for remembering local class declarations (like
   enums and static (const) members.  */
#include "stack.h"
struct obstack decl_obstack;
static struct stack_level *decl_stack;

#ifndef CHAR_TYPE_SIZE
#define CHAR_TYPE_SIZE BITS_PER_UNIT
#endif

#ifndef SHORT_TYPE_SIZE
#define SHORT_TYPE_SIZE (BITS_PER_UNIT * MIN ((UNITS_PER_WORD + 1) / 2, 2))
#endif

#ifndef INT_TYPE_SIZE
#define INT_TYPE_SIZE BITS_PER_WORD
#endif

#ifndef LONG_TYPE_SIZE
#define LONG_TYPE_SIZE BITS_PER_WORD
#endif

#ifndef LONG_LONG_TYPE_SIZE
#define LONG_LONG_TYPE_SIZE (BITS_PER_WORD * 2)
#endif

#ifndef WCHAR_UNSIGNED
#define WCHAR_UNSIGNED 0
#endif

#ifndef FLOAT_TYPE_SIZE
#define FLOAT_TYPE_SIZE BITS_PER_WORD
#endif

#ifndef DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE
#define DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE (BITS_PER_WORD * 2)
#endif

#ifndef LONG_DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE
#define LONG_DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE (BITS_PER_WORD * 2)
#endif

#ifndef BOOL_TYPE_SIZE
#ifdef SLOW_BYTE_ACCESS
#define BOOL_TYPE_SIZE ((SLOW_BYTE_ACCESS) ? (POINTER_SIZE) : (CHAR_TYPE_SIZE))
#else
#define BOOL_TYPE_SIZE CHAR_TYPE_SIZE
#endif
#endif

/* We let tm.h override the types used here, to handle trivial differences
   such as the choice of unsigned int or long unsigned int for size_t.
   When machines start needing nontrivial differences in the size type,
   it would be best to do something here to figure out automatically
   from other information what type to use.  */

#ifndef SIZE_TYPE
#define SIZE_TYPE "long unsigned int"
#endif

#ifndef PTRDIFF_TYPE
#define PTRDIFF_TYPE "long int"
#endif

#ifndef WCHAR_TYPE
#define WCHAR_TYPE "int"
#endif

static tree grokparms                     PROTO((tree, int));
static tree lookup_nested_type                  PROTO((tree, tree));
static char *redeclaration_error_message  PROTO((tree, tree));
static tree push_overloaded_decl          PROTO((tree, int));

static struct stack_level *push_decl_level PROTO((struct stack_level *,
                                      struct obstack *));
static void push_binding_level PROTO((struct binding_level *, int,
                              int));
static void pop_binding_level PROTO((void));
static void suspend_binding_level PROTO((void));
static void resume_binding_level PROTO((struct binding_level *));
static struct binding_level *make_binding_level PROTO((void));
static int namespace_bindings_p PROTO((void));
static void declare_namespace_level PROTO((void));
static void signal_catch PROTO((int));
static void storedecls PROTO((tree));
static void storetags PROTO((tree));
static void require_complete_types_for_parms PROTO((tree));
static void push_overloaded_decl_1 PROTO((tree));
static int ambi_op_p PROTO((tree));
static int unary_op_p PROTO((tree));
static tree store_bindings PROTO((tree, tree));
static tree lookup_tag_reverse PROTO((tree, tree));
static tree obscure_complex_init PROTO((tree, tree));
static tree maybe_build_cleanup_1 PROTO((tree, tree));
static tree lookup_name_real PROTO((tree, int, int, int));
static void warn_extern_redeclared_static PROTO((tree, tree));
static void grok_reference_init PROTO((tree, tree, tree));
static tree grokfndecl PROTO((tree, tree, tree, tree, int,
                        enum overload_flags, tree,
                        tree, tree, int, int, int, int, int, int, tree));
static tree grokvardecl PROTO((tree, tree, RID_BIT_TYPE *, int, int, tree));
static tree lookup_tag PROTO((enum tree_code, tree,
                        struct binding_level *, int));
static void set_identifier_type_value_with_scope
      PROTO((tree, tree, struct binding_level *));
static void set_identifier_local_value_with_scope
      PROTO((tree, tree, struct binding_level *));
static void record_builtin_type PROTO((enum rid, char *, tree));
static void record_unknown_type PROTO((tree, char *));
static int member_function_or_else PROTO((tree, tree, char *));
static void bad_specifiers PROTO((tree, char *, int, int, int, int,
                          int));
static void lang_print_error_function PROTO((char *));

#if defined (DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
static void indent PROTO((void));
#endif

/* A node which has tree code ERROR_MARK, and whose type is itself.
   All erroneous expressions are replaced with this node.  All functions
   that accept nodes as arguments should avoid generating error messages
   if this node is one of the arguments, since it is undesirable to get
   multiple error messages from one error in the input.  */

tree error_mark_node;

/* Erroneous argument lists can use this *IFF* they do not modify it.  */
tree error_mark_list;

/* INTEGER_TYPE and REAL_TYPE nodes for the standard data types */

tree short_integer_type_node;
tree integer_type_node;
tree long_integer_type_node;
tree long_long_integer_type_node;

tree short_unsigned_type_node;
tree unsigned_type_node;
tree long_unsigned_type_node;
tree long_long_unsigned_type_node;

tree ptrdiff_type_node;

tree unsigned_char_type_node;
tree signed_char_type_node;
tree char_type_node;
tree wchar_type_node;
tree signed_wchar_type_node;
tree unsigned_wchar_type_node;

tree wchar_decl_node;

tree float_type_node;
tree double_type_node;
tree long_double_type_node;

tree complex_integer_type_node;
tree complex_float_type_node;
tree complex_double_type_node;
tree complex_long_double_type_node;

tree intQI_type_node;
tree intHI_type_node;
tree intSI_type_node;
tree intDI_type_node;
tree intTI_type_node;

tree unsigned_intQI_type_node;
tree unsigned_intHI_type_node;
tree unsigned_intSI_type_node;
tree unsigned_intDI_type_node;
tree unsigned_intTI_type_node;

tree java_byte_type_node;
tree java_short_type_node;
tree java_int_type_node;
tree java_long_type_node;
tree java_float_type_node;
tree java_double_type_node;
tree java_char_type_node;
tree java_boolean_type_node;

/* A VOID_TYPE node, and the same, packaged in a TREE_LIST.  */

tree void_type_node, void_list_node;
tree void_zero_node;

/* Nodes for types `void *' and `const void *'.  */

tree ptr_type_node;
tree const_ptr_type_node;

/* Nodes for types `char *' and `const char *'.  */

tree string_type_node, const_string_type_node;

/* Type `char[256]' or something like it.
   Used when an array of char is needed and the size is irrelevant.  */

tree char_array_type_node;

/* Type `int[256]' or something like it.
   Used when an array of int needed and the size is irrelevant.  */

tree int_array_type_node;

/* Type `wchar_t[256]' or something like it.
   Used when a wide string literal is created.  */

tree wchar_array_type_node;

/* The bool data type, and constants */
tree boolean_type_node, boolean_true_node, boolean_false_node;

/* Type `int ()' -- used for implicit declaration of functions.  */

tree default_function_type;

/* Function types `double (double)' and `double (double, double)', etc.  */

static tree double_ftype_double, double_ftype_double_double;
static tree int_ftype_int, long_ftype_long;
static tree float_ftype_float;
static tree ldouble_ftype_ldouble;

/* Function type `int (const void *, const void *, size_t)' */
static tree int_ftype_cptr_cptr_sizet;

/* C++ extensions */
tree vtable_entry_type;
tree delta_type_node;
#if 0
/* Old rtti stuff.  */
tree __baselist_desc_type_node;
tree __i_desc_type_node, __m_desc_type_node;
tree __t_desc_array_type, __i_desc_array_type, __m_desc_array_type;
#endif
tree __t_desc_type_node;
#if 0
tree __tp_desc_type_node;
#endif
tree __access_mode_type_node;
tree __bltn_desc_type_node, __user_desc_type_node, __class_desc_type_node;
tree __ptr_desc_type_node, __attr_desc_type_node, __func_desc_type_node;
tree __ptmf_desc_type_node, __ptmd_desc_type_node;
#if 0
/* Not needed yet?  May be needed one day?  */
tree __bltn_desc_array_type, __user_desc_array_type, __class_desc_array_type;
tree __ptr_desc_array_type, __attr_dec_array_type, __func_desc_array_type;
tree __ptmf_desc_array_type, __ptmd_desc_array_type;
#endif

/* Indicates that there is a type value in some namespace, although
   that is not necessarily in scope at the moment. */

static tree global_type_node;

tree class_star_type_node;
tree class_type_node, record_type_node, union_type_node, enum_type_node;
tree unknown_type_node;
tree opaque_type_node, signature_type_node;
tree sigtable_entry_type;

/* Array type `vtable_entry_type[]' */
tree vtbl_type_node;

/* namespace std */
tree std_node;
int in_std = 0;

/* Expect only namespace names now. */
static int only_namespace_names;

/* In a destructor, the point at which all derived class destroying
   has been done, just before any base class destroying will be done.  */

tree dtor_label;

/* In a destructor, the last insn emitted after the start of the
   function and the parms.  */

static rtx last_dtor_insn;

/* In a constructor, the last insn emitted after the start of the
   function and the parms, the exception specification and any
   function-try-block.  The constructor initializers are emitted after
   this insn.  */

static rtx last_parm_cleanup_insn;

/* In a constructor, the point at which we are ready to return
   the pointer to the initialized object.  */

tree ctor_label;

/* A FUNCTION_DECL which can call `abort'.  Not necessarily the
   one that the user will declare, but sufficient to be called
   by routines that want to abort the program.  */

tree abort_fndecl;

extern rtx cleanup_label, return_label;

/* If original DECL_RESULT of current function was a register,
   but due to being an addressable named return value, would up
   on the stack, this variable holds the named return value's
   original location.  */
static rtx original_result_rtx;

/* Sequence of insns which represents base initialization.  */
tree base_init_expr;

/* C++: Keep these around to reduce calls to `get_identifier'.
   Identifiers for `this' in member functions and the auto-delete
   parameter for destructors.  */
tree this_identifier, in_charge_identifier;
tree ctor_identifier, dtor_identifier;
/* Used in pointer to member functions, in vtables, and in sigtables.  */
tree pfn_identifier, index_identifier, delta_identifier, delta2_identifier;
tree pfn_or_delta2_identifier, tag_identifier;
tree vt_off_identifier;

struct named_label_list
{
  struct binding_level *binding_level;
  tree names_in_scope;
  tree label_decl;
  char *filename_o_goto;
  int lineno_o_goto;
  struct named_label_list *next;
};

/* A list (chain of TREE_LIST nodes) of named label uses.
   The TREE_PURPOSE field is the list of variables defined
   in the label's scope defined at the point of use.
   The TREE_VALUE field is the LABEL_DECL used.
   The TREE_TYPE field holds `current_binding_level' at the
   point of the label's use.

   BWAHAHAAHAHahhahahahaah.  No, no, no, said the little chicken.

   Look at the pretty struct named_label_list. See the pretty struct
   with the pretty named fields that describe what they do. See the
   pretty lack of gratuitous casts. Notice the code got a lot cleaner.

   Used only for jumps to as-yet undefined labels, since
   jumps to defined labels can have their validity checked
   by stmt.c.  */

static struct named_label_list *named_label_uses = NULL;

/* A list of objects which have constructors or destructors
   which reside in the global scope.  The decl is stored in
   the TREE_VALUE slot and the initializer is stored
   in the TREE_PURPOSE slot.  */
tree static_aggregates;

/* -- end of C++ */

/* Two expressions that are constants with value zero.
   The first is of type `int', the second of type `void *'.  */

tree integer_zero_node;
tree null_pointer_node;

/* The value for __null (NULL), either of type `void *' or, with -ansi,
   an integer type of the same size.  */

tree null_node;

/* A node for the integer constants 1, 2, and 3.  */

tree integer_one_node, integer_two_node, integer_three_node;

/* While defining an enum type, this is 1 plus the last enumerator
   constant value.  */

static tree enum_next_value;

/* Nonzero means that there was overflow computing enum_next_value.  */

static int enum_overflow;

/* Parsing a function declarator leaves a list of parameter names
   or a chain or parameter decls here.  */

tree last_function_parms;

/* Parsing a function declarator leaves here a chain of structure
   and enum types declared in the parmlist.  */

static tree last_function_parm_tags;

/* After parsing the declarator that starts a function definition,
   `start_function' puts here the list of parameter names or chain of decls.
   `store_parm_decls' finds it here.  */

static tree current_function_parms;

/* Similar, for last_function_parm_tags.  */
static tree current_function_parm_tags;

/* A list (chain of TREE_LIST nodes) of all LABEL_DECLs in the function
   that have names.  Here so we can clear out their names' definitions
   at the end of the function.  */

static tree named_labels;

/* A list of LABEL_DECLs from outer contexts that are currently shadowed.  */

static tree shadowed_labels;

/* The FUNCTION_DECL for the function currently being compiled,
   or 0 if between functions.  */
tree current_function_decl;

/* Set to 0 at beginning of a function definition, set to 1 if
   a return statement that specifies a return value is seen.  */

int current_function_returns_value;

/* Set to 0 at beginning of a function definition, set to 1 if
   a return statement with no argument is seen.  */

int current_function_returns_null;

/* Set to 0 at beginning of a function definition, and whenever
   a label (case or named) is defined.  Set to value of expression
   returned from function when that value can be transformed into
   a named return value.  */

tree current_function_return_value;

/* Set to nonzero by `grokdeclarator' for a function
   whose return type is defaulted, if warnings for this are desired.  */

static int warn_about_return_type;

/* Nonzero means give `double' the same size as `float'.  */

extern int flag_short_double;

/* Nonzero means don't recognize any builtin functions.  */

extern int flag_no_builtin;

/* Nonzero means don't recognize the non-ANSI builtin functions.
   -ansi sets this.  */

extern int flag_no_nonansi_builtin;

/* Nonzero means enable obscure ANSI features and disable GNU extensions
   that might cause ANSI-compliant code to be miscompiled.  */

extern int flag_ansi;

/* Nonzero if we want to support huge (> 2^(sizeof(short)*8-1) bytes)
   objects.  */
extern int flag_huge_objects;

/* Nonzero if we want to conserve space in the .o files.  We do this
   by putting uninitialized data and runtime initialized data into
   .common instead of .data at the expense of not flagging multiple
   definitions.  */
extern int flag_conserve_space;

/* Pointers to the base and current top of the language name stack.  */

extern tree *current_lang_base, *current_lang_stack;

/* C and C++ flags are in decl2.c.  */

/* Set to 0 at beginning of a constructor, set to 1
   if that function does an allocation before referencing its
   instance variable.  */
static int current_function_assigns_this;
int current_function_just_assigned_this;

/* Set to 0 at beginning of a function.  Set non-zero when
   store_parm_decls is called.  Don't call store_parm_decls
   if this flag is non-zero!  */
int current_function_parms_stored;

/* Flag used when debugging spew.c */

extern int spew_debug;

/* This is a copy of the class_shadowed list of the previous class binding
   contour when at global scope.  It's used to reset IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUEs
   when entering another class scope (i.e. a cache miss).  */
extern tree previous_class_values;

/* A expression of value 0 with the same precision as a sizetype
   node, but signed.  */
tree signed_size_zero_node;


/* Allocate a level of searching.  */

static
struct stack_level *
push_decl_level (stack, obstack)
     struct stack_level *stack;
     struct obstack *obstack;
{
  struct stack_level tem;
  tem.prev = stack;

  return push_stack_level (obstack, (char *)&tem, sizeof (tem));
}

/* For each binding contour we allocate a binding_level structure
   which records the names defined in that contour.
   Contours include:
    0) the global one
    1) one for each function definition,
       where internal declarations of the parameters appear.
    2) one for each compound statement,
       to record its declarations.

   The current meaning of a name can be found by searching the levels
   from the current one out to the global one.

   Off to the side, may be the class_binding_level.  This exists only
   to catch class-local declarations.  It is otherwise nonexistent.

   Also there may be binding levels that catch cleanups that must be
   run when exceptions occur.  */

/* Note that the information in the `names' component of the global contour
   is duplicated in the IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUEs of all identifiers.  */

struct binding_level
  {
    /* A chain of _DECL nodes for all variables, constants, functions,
       and typedef types.  These are in the reverse of the order
       supplied.  */
    tree names;

    /* A list of structure, union and enum definitions, for looking up
       tag names.
       It is a chain of TREE_LIST nodes, each of whose TREE_PURPOSE is a name,
       or NULL_TREE; and whose TREE_VALUE is a RECORD_TYPE, UNION_TYPE,
       or ENUMERAL_TYPE node.

       C++: the TREE_VALUE nodes can be simple types for
       component_bindings.  */
    tree tags;

    /* A list of USING_DECL nodes. */
    tree usings;

    /* A list of used namespaces. PURPOSE is the namespace,
       VALUE the common ancestor with this binding_level's namespace. */
    tree using_directives;

    /* For each level, a list of shadowed outer-level local definitions
       to be restored when this level is popped.
       Each link is a TREE_LIST whose TREE_PURPOSE is an identifier and
       whose TREE_VALUE is its old definition (a kind of ..._DECL node).  */
    tree shadowed;

    /* Same, for IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE.  */
    tree class_shadowed;

    /* Same, for IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE.  */
    tree type_shadowed;

    /* For each level (except not the global one),
       a chain of BLOCK nodes for all the levels
       that were entered and exited one level down.  */
    tree blocks;

    /* The BLOCK node for this level, if one has been preallocated.
       If 0, the BLOCK is allocated (if needed) when the level is popped.  */
    tree this_block;

    /* The binding level which this one is contained in (inherits from).  */
    struct binding_level *level_chain;

    /* List of decls in `names' that have incomplete
       structure or union types.  */
    tree incomplete;

    /* List of VAR_DECLS saved from a previous for statement.
       These would be dead in ANSI-conforming code, but might
       be referenced in ARM-era code.  */
    tree dead_vars_from_for;

    /* 1 for the level that holds the parameters of a function.
       2 for the level that holds a class declaration.
       3 for levels that hold parameter declarations.  */
    unsigned parm_flag : 4;

    /* 1 means make a BLOCK for this level regardless of all else.
       2 for temporary binding contours created by the compiler.  */
    unsigned keep : 3;

    /* Nonzero if this level "doesn't exist" for tags.  */
    unsigned tag_transparent : 1;

    /* Nonzero if this level can safely have additional
       cleanup-needing variables added to it.  */
    unsigned more_cleanups_ok : 1;
    unsigned have_cleanups : 1;

    /* Nonzero if this level is for storing the decls for template
       parameters and generic decls; these decls will be discarded and
       replaced with a TEMPLATE_DECL.  */
    unsigned pseudo_global : 1;

    /* This is set for a namespace binding level.  */
    unsigned namespace_p : 1;

    /* True if this level is that of a for-statement where we need to
       worry about ambiguous (ARM or ANSI) scope rules.  */
    unsigned is_for_scope : 1;

    /* Two bits left for this word.  */

#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
    /* Binding depth at which this level began.  */
    unsigned binding_depth;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
  };

#define NULL_BINDING_LEVEL ((struct binding_level *) NULL)
  
/* The (non-class) binding level currently in effect.  */

static struct binding_level *current_binding_level;

/* The binding level of the current class, if any.  */

static struct binding_level *class_binding_level;

/* The current (class or non-class) binding level currently in effect.  */

#define inner_binding_level \
  (class_binding_level ? class_binding_level : current_binding_level)

/* A chain of binding_level structures awaiting reuse.  */

static struct binding_level *free_binding_level;

/* The outermost binding level, for names of file scope.
   This is created when the compiler is started and exists
   through the entire run.  */

static struct binding_level *global_binding_level;

/* Binding level structures are initialized by copying this one.  */

static struct binding_level clear_binding_level;

/* Nonzero means unconditionally make a BLOCK for the next level pushed.  */

static int keep_next_level_flag;

#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
static int binding_depth = 0;
static int is_class_level = 0;

static void
indent ()
{
  register unsigned i;

  for (i = 0; i < binding_depth*2; i++)
    putc (' ', stderr);
}
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */

static tree pushdecl_with_scope     PROTO((tree, struct binding_level *));

static void
push_binding_level (newlevel, tag_transparent, keep)
     struct binding_level *newlevel;
     int tag_transparent, keep;
{
  /* Add this level to the front of the chain (stack) of levels that
     are active.  */
  *newlevel = clear_binding_level;
  if (class_binding_level)
    {
      newlevel->level_chain = class_binding_level;
      class_binding_level = (struct binding_level *)0;
    }
  else
    {
      newlevel->level_chain = current_binding_level;
    }
  current_binding_level = newlevel;
  newlevel->tag_transparent = tag_transparent;
  newlevel->more_cleanups_ok = 1;
  newlevel->keep = keep;
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  newlevel->binding_depth = binding_depth;
  indent ();
  fprintf (stderr, "push %s level 0x%08x line %d\n",
         (is_class_level) ? "class" : "block", newlevel, lineno);
  is_class_level = 0;
  binding_depth++;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
}

static void
pop_binding_level ()
{
  if (class_binding_level)
    current_binding_level = class_binding_level;

  if (global_binding_level)
    {
      /* Cannot pop a level, if there are none left to pop.  */
      if (current_binding_level == global_binding_level)
      my_friendly_abort (123);
    }
  /* Pop the current level, and free the structure for reuse.  */
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  binding_depth--;
  indent ();
  fprintf (stderr, "pop  %s level 0x%08x line %d\n",
        (is_class_level) ? "class" : "block",
        current_binding_level, lineno);
  if (is_class_level != (current_binding_level == class_binding_level))
    {
      indent ();
      fprintf (stderr, "XXX is_class_level != (current_binding_level == class_binding_level)\n");
    }
  is_class_level = 0;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
  {
    register struct binding_level *level = current_binding_level;
    current_binding_level = current_binding_level->level_chain;
    level->level_chain = free_binding_level;
#if 0 /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
    if (level->binding_depth != binding_depth)
      abort ();
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
      free_binding_level = level;

    class_binding_level = current_binding_level;
    if (class_binding_level->parm_flag != 2)
      class_binding_level = 0;
    while (current_binding_level->parm_flag == 2)
      current_binding_level = current_binding_level->level_chain;
  }
}

static void
suspend_binding_level ()
{
  if (class_binding_level)
    current_binding_level = class_binding_level;

  if (global_binding_level)
    {
      /* Cannot suspend a level, if there are none left to suspend.  */
      if (current_binding_level == global_binding_level)
      my_friendly_abort (123);
    }
  /* Suspend the current level.  */
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  binding_depth--;
  indent ();
  fprintf (stderr, "suspend  %s level 0x%08x line %d\n",
        (is_class_level) ? "class" : "block",
        current_binding_level, lineno);
  if (is_class_level != (current_binding_level == class_binding_level))
    {
      indent ();
      fprintf (stderr, "XXX is_class_level != (current_binding_level == class_binding_level)\n");
    }
  is_class_level = 0;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
  {
    current_binding_level = current_binding_level->level_chain;
    class_binding_level = current_binding_level;
    if (class_binding_level->parm_flag != 2)
      class_binding_level = 0;
    while (current_binding_level->parm_flag == 2)
      current_binding_level = current_binding_level->level_chain;
  }
}

static void
resume_binding_level (b)
     struct binding_level *b;
{
  /* Resuming binding levels is meant only for namespaces,
     and those cannot nest into classes. */
  my_friendly_assert(!class_binding_level, 386);
  /* Also, resuming a non-directly nested namespace is a no-no.  */
  my_friendly_assert(b->level_chain == current_binding_level, 386);
  current_binding_level = b;
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  b->binding_depth = binding_depth;
  indent ();
  fprintf (stderr, "resume %s level 0x%08x line %d\n",
         (is_class_level) ? "class" : "block", b, lineno);
  is_class_level = 0;
  binding_depth++;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
}

/* Create a new `struct binding_level'.  */

static
struct binding_level *
make_binding_level ()
{
  /* NOSTRICT */
  return (struct binding_level *) xmalloc (sizeof (struct binding_level));
}

/* Nonzero if we are currently in the global binding level.  */

int
global_bindings_p ()
{
  return current_binding_level == global_binding_level;
}

/* Nonzero if we are currently in a toplevel binding level.  This
   means either the global binding level or a namespace in a toplevel
   binding level.
   Since there are no non-toplevel namespace levels, this really
   means any namespace or pseudo-global level.  */

int
toplevel_bindings_p ()
{
  return current_binding_level->namespace_p 
    || current_binding_level->pseudo_global;
}

/* Nonzero if this is a namespace scope.  */

static int
namespace_bindings_p ()
{
  return current_binding_level->namespace_p;
}

void
keep_next_level ()
{
  keep_next_level_flag = 1;
}

/* Nonzero if the current level needs to have a BLOCK made.  */

int
kept_level_p ()
{
  return (current_binding_level->blocks != NULL_TREE
        || current_binding_level->keep
        || current_binding_level->names != NULL_TREE
        || (current_binding_level->tags != NULL_TREE
            && !current_binding_level->tag_transparent));
}

/* Identify this binding level as a level of parameters.  */

void
declare_parm_level ()
{
  current_binding_level->parm_flag = 1;
}

void
declare_pseudo_global_level ()
{
  current_binding_level->pseudo_global = 1;
}

static void
declare_namespace_level ()
{
  current_binding_level->namespace_p = 1;
}

int
pseudo_global_level_p ()
{
  return current_binding_level->pseudo_global;
}

void
set_class_shadows (shadows)
     tree shadows;
{
  class_binding_level->class_shadowed = shadows;
}

/* Enter a new binding level.
   If TAG_TRANSPARENT is nonzero, do so only for the name space of variables,
   not for that of tags.  */

void
pushlevel (tag_transparent)
     int tag_transparent;
{
  register struct binding_level *newlevel = NULL_BINDING_LEVEL;

  /* If this is the top level of a function,
     just make sure that NAMED_LABELS is 0.
     They should have been set to 0 at the end of the previous function.  */

  if (current_binding_level == global_binding_level)
    my_friendly_assert (named_labels == NULL_TREE, 134);

  /* Reuse or create a struct for this binding level.  */

#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  if (0)
#else /* !defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
  if (free_binding_level)
#endif /* !defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
    {
      newlevel = free_binding_level;
      free_binding_level = free_binding_level->level_chain;
    }
  else
    {
      newlevel = make_binding_level ();
    }

  push_binding_level (newlevel, tag_transparent, keep_next_level_flag);
  GNU_xref_start_scope ((HOST_WIDE_INT) newlevel);
  keep_next_level_flag = 0;
}

void
note_level_for_for ()
{
  current_binding_level->is_for_scope = 1;
}

void
pushlevel_temporary (tag_transparent)
     int tag_transparent;
{
  pushlevel (tag_transparent);
  current_binding_level->keep = 2;
  clear_last_expr ();

  /* Note we don't call push_momentary() here.  Otherwise, it would cause
     cleanups to be allocated on the momentary obstack, and they will be
     overwritten by the next statement.  */

  expand_start_bindings (0);
}

/* Exit a binding level.
   Pop the level off, and restore the state of the identifier-decl mappings
   that were in effect when this level was entered.

   If KEEP == 1, this level had explicit declarations, so
   and create a "block" (a BLOCK node) for the level
   to record its declarations and subblocks for symbol table output.

   If KEEP == 2, this level's subblocks go to the front,
   not the back of the current binding level.  This happens,
   for instance, when code for constructors and destructors
   need to generate code at the end of a function which must
   be moved up to the front of the function.

   If FUNCTIONBODY is nonzero, this level is the body of a function,
   so create a block as if KEEP were set and also clear out all
   label names.

   If REVERSE is nonzero, reverse the order of decls before putting
   them into the BLOCK.  */

tree
poplevel (keep, reverse, functionbody)
     int keep;
     int reverse;
     int functionbody;
{
  register tree link;
  /* The chain of decls was accumulated in reverse order.
     Put it into forward order, just for cleanliness.  */
  tree decls;
  int tmp = functionbody;
  int real_functionbody = current_binding_level->keep == 2
    ? ((functionbody = 0), tmp) : functionbody;
  tree tags = functionbody >= 0 ? current_binding_level->tags : 0;
  tree subblocks = functionbody >= 0 ? current_binding_level->blocks : 0;
  tree block = NULL_TREE;
  tree decl;
  int block_previously_created;

  GNU_xref_end_scope ((HOST_WIDE_INT) current_binding_level,
                  (HOST_WIDE_INT) current_binding_level->level_chain,
                  current_binding_level->parm_flag,
                  current_binding_level->keep);

  if (current_binding_level->keep == 1)
    keep = 1;

  /* Get the decls in the order they were written.
     Usually current_binding_level->names is in reverse order.
     But parameter decls were previously put in forward order.  */

  if (reverse)
    current_binding_level->names
      = decls = nreverse (current_binding_level->names);
  else
    decls = current_binding_level->names;

  /* Output any nested inline functions within this block
     if they weren't already output.  */

  for (decl = decls; decl; decl = TREE_CHAIN (decl))
    if (TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL
      && ! TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (decl)
      && DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE
      && TREE_ADDRESSABLE (decl)
      && decl_function_context (decl) == current_function_decl)
      {
      /* If this decl was copied from a file-scope decl
         on account of a block-scope extern decl,
         propagate TREE_ADDRESSABLE to the file-scope decl.  */
      if (DECL_ABSTRACT_ORIGIN (decl) != NULL_TREE)
        TREE_ADDRESSABLE (DECL_ABSTRACT_ORIGIN (decl)) = 1;
      else
        {
          push_function_context ();
          output_inline_function (decl);
          pop_function_context ();
        }
      }

  /* If there were any declarations or structure tags in that level,
     or if this level is a function body,
     create a BLOCK to record them for the life of this function.  */

  block = NULL_TREE;
  block_previously_created = (current_binding_level->this_block != NULL_TREE);
  if (block_previously_created)
    block = current_binding_level->this_block;
  else if (keep == 1 || functionbody)
    block = make_node (BLOCK);
  if (block != NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (block_previously_created)
      {
        if (decls || tags || subblocks)
          {
            if (BLOCK_VARS (block) || BLOCK_TYPE_TAGS (block))
            {
              warning ("internal compiler error: debugging info corrupted");
            }
            BLOCK_VARS (block) = decls;
            BLOCK_TYPE_TAGS (block) = tags;

            /* We can have previous subblocks and new subblocks when
             doing fixup_gotos with complex cleanups.  We chain the new
             subblocks onto the end of any pre-existing subblocks.  */
            BLOCK_SUBBLOCKS (block) = chainon (BLOCK_SUBBLOCKS (block),
                                     subblocks);
          }
        /* If we created the block earlier on, and we are just
           diddling it now, then it already should have a proper
           BLOCK_END_NOTE value associated with it.  */
      }
      else
      {
        BLOCK_VARS (block) = decls;
        BLOCK_TYPE_TAGS (block) = tags;
        BLOCK_SUBBLOCKS (block) = subblocks;
        /* Otherwise, for a new block, install a new BLOCK_END_NOTE value.  */
        remember_end_note (block);
      }
    }

  /* In each subblock, record that this is its superior.  */

  if (keep >= 0)
    for (link = subblocks; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      BLOCK_SUPERCONTEXT (link) = block;

  /* Clear out the meanings of the local variables of this level.  */

  if (current_binding_level->is_for_scope && flag_new_for_scope == 1)
    {
      struct binding_level *outer = current_binding_level->level_chain;
      for (link = decls; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (link) == VAR_DECL)
          DECL_DEAD_FOR_LOCAL (link) = 1;
        else
          IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (link)) = NULL_TREE;
      }

      /* Save declarations made in a 'for' statement so we can support pre-ANSI
       'for' scoping semantics.  */

      for (link = current_binding_level->shadowed; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      {
        tree id = TREE_PURPOSE (link);
        tree decl = IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id);

        if (decl && DECL_DEAD_FOR_LOCAL (decl))
          {
            /* In this case keep the dead for-decl visible,
             but remember what (if anything) it shadowed.  */
            DECL_SHADOWED_FOR_VAR (decl) = TREE_VALUE (link);
            TREE_CHAIN (decl) = outer->dead_vars_from_for;
            outer->dead_vars_from_for = decl;
          }
        else
          IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) = TREE_VALUE (link);
      }
    }
  else /* Not special for scope.  */
    {
      for (link = decls; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      {
        if (DECL_NAME (link) != NULL_TREE)
          {
            /* If the ident. was used or addressed via a local extern decl,
             don't forget that fact.  */
            if (DECL_EXTERNAL (link))
            {
              if (TREE_USED (link))
                TREE_USED (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (link)) = 1;
              if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (link))
                TREE_ADDRESSABLE (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (link)) = 1;
            }
            IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (link)) = NULL_TREE;
          }
      }

      /* Restore all name-meanings of the outer levels
       that were shadowed by this level.  */

      for (link = current_binding_level->shadowed;
         link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link)) = TREE_VALUE (link);

      /* We first restore the regular decls and *then* the dead_vars_from_for
       to handle this case:

       int i; // i#1
       {
         for (int i; ; ) { ...} // i#2
           int i; // i#3
       } // we are here

       In this case, we want remove the binding for i#3, restoring
       that of i#2.  Then we want to remove the binding for i#2,
       and restore that of i#1.  */

      link = current_binding_level->dead_vars_from_for;
      for (; link != NULL_TREE; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      {
        tree id = DECL_NAME (link);
        if (IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) == link)
          IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) = DECL_SHADOWED_FOR_VAR (link);
      }

      for (link = current_binding_level->class_shadowed;
         link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link)) = TREE_VALUE (link);
      for (link = current_binding_level->type_shadowed;
         link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link), TREE_VALUE (link));
    }

  /* If the level being exited is the top level of a function,
     check over all the labels.  */

  if (functionbody)
    {
      /* If this is the top level block of a function,
         the vars are the function's parameters.
         Don't leave them in the BLOCK because they are
         found in the FUNCTION_DECL instead.  */

      BLOCK_VARS (block) = 0;

      /* Clear out the definitions of all label names,
       since their scopes end here.  */

      for (link = named_labels; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      {
        register tree label = TREE_VALUE (link);

        if (DECL_INITIAL (label) == NULL_TREE)
          {
            cp_error_at ("label `%D' used but not defined", label);
            /* Avoid crashing later.  */
            define_label (input_filename, 1, DECL_NAME (label));
          }
        else if (warn_unused && !TREE_USED (label))
          cp_warning_at ("label `%D' defined but not used", label);
        SET_IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (label), NULL_TREE);

          /* Put the labels into the "variables" of the
             top-level block, so debugger can see them.  */
          TREE_CHAIN (label) = BLOCK_VARS (block);
          BLOCK_VARS (block) = label;
      }

      named_labels = NULL_TREE;
    }

  /* Any uses of undefined labels now operate under constraints
     of next binding contour.  */
  {
    struct binding_level *level_chain;
    level_chain = current_binding_level->level_chain;
    if (level_chain)
      {
      struct named_label_list *labels;
      for (labels = named_label_uses; labels; labels = labels->next)
        if (labels->binding_level == current_binding_level)
          {
            labels->binding_level = level_chain;
            labels->names_in_scope = level_chain->names;
          }
      }
  }

  tmp = current_binding_level->keep;

  pop_binding_level ();
  if (functionbody)
    DECL_INITIAL (current_function_decl) = block;
  else if (block)
    {
      if (!block_previously_created)
        current_binding_level->blocks
          = chainon (current_binding_level->blocks, block);
    }
  /* If we did not make a block for the level just exited,
     any blocks made for inner levels
     (since they cannot be recorded as subblocks in that level)
     must be carried forward so they will later become subblocks
     of something else.  */
  else if (subblocks)
    {
      if (keep == 2)
      current_binding_level->blocks
        = chainon (subblocks, current_binding_level->blocks);
      else
      current_binding_level->blocks
        = chainon (current_binding_level->blocks, subblocks);
    }

  /* Take care of compiler's internal binding structures.  */
  if (tmp == 2)
    {
      expand_end_bindings (getdecls (), keep, 1);
      /* Each and every BLOCK node created here in `poplevel' is important
       (e.g. for proper debugging information) so if we created one
       earlier, mark it as "used".  */
      if (block)
      TREE_USED (block) = 1;
      block = poplevel (keep, reverse, real_functionbody);
    }

  /* Each and every BLOCK node created here in `poplevel' is important
     (e.g. for proper debugging information) so if we created one
     earlier, mark it as "used".  */
  if (block)
    TREE_USED (block) = 1;
  return block;
}

/* Delete the node BLOCK from the current binding level.
   This is used for the block inside a stmt expr ({...})
   so that the block can be reinserted where appropriate.  */

void
delete_block (block)
     tree block;
{
  tree t;
  if (current_binding_level->blocks == block)
    current_binding_level->blocks = TREE_CHAIN (block);
  for (t = current_binding_level->blocks; t;)
    {
      if (TREE_CHAIN (t) == block)
      TREE_CHAIN (t) = TREE_CHAIN (block);
      else
      t = TREE_CHAIN (t);
    }
  TREE_CHAIN (block) = NULL_TREE;
  /* Clear TREE_USED which is always set by poplevel.
     The flag is set again if insert_block is called.  */
  TREE_USED (block) = 0;
}

/* Insert BLOCK at the end of the list of subblocks of the
   current binding level.  This is used when a BIND_EXPR is expanded,
   to handle the BLOCK node inside the BIND_EXPR.  */

void
insert_block (block)
     tree block;
{
  TREE_USED (block) = 1;
  current_binding_level->blocks
    = chainon (current_binding_level->blocks, block);
}

/* Set the BLOCK node for the innermost scope
   (the one we are currently in).  */

void
set_block (block)
    register tree block;
{
  current_binding_level->this_block = block;
}

/* Do a pushlevel for class declarations.  */

void
pushlevel_class ()
{
  register struct binding_level *newlevel;

  /* Reuse or create a struct for this binding level.  */
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  if (0)
#else /* !defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
  if (free_binding_level)
#endif /* !defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */
    {
      newlevel = free_binding_level;
      free_binding_level = free_binding_level->level_chain;
    }
  else
    {
      newlevel = make_binding_level ();
    }

#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  is_class_level = 1;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */

  push_binding_level (newlevel, 0, 0);

  decl_stack = push_decl_level (decl_stack, &decl_obstack);
  class_binding_level = current_binding_level;
  class_binding_level->parm_flag = 2;
  /* We have just pushed into a new binding level.  Now, fake out the rest
     of the compiler.  Set the `current_binding_level' back to point to
     the most closely containing non-class binding level.  */
  do
    {
      current_binding_level = current_binding_level->level_chain;
    }
  while (current_binding_level->parm_flag == 2);
}

/* ...and a poplevel for class declarations.  FORCE is used to force
   clearing out of CLASS_VALUEs after a class definition.  */

tree
poplevel_class (force)
     int force;
{
  register struct binding_level *level = class_binding_level;
  tree block = NULL_TREE;
  tree shadowed;

  my_friendly_assert (level != 0, 354);
  
  decl_stack = pop_stack_level (decl_stack);
  for (shadowed = level->shadowed; shadowed; shadowed = TREE_CHAIN (shadowed))
    IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (shadowed)) = TREE_VALUE (shadowed);
  /* If we're leaving a toplevel class, don't bother to do the setting
     of IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE to NULL_TREE, since first of all this slot
     shouldn't even be used when current_class_type isn't set, and second,
     if we don't touch it here, we're able to use the cache effect if the
     next time we're entering a class scope, it is the same class.  */
  if (current_class_depth != 1 || force)
    for (shadowed = level->class_shadowed;
       shadowed;
       shadowed = TREE_CHAIN (shadowed))
      IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (shadowed)) = TREE_VALUE (shadowed);
  else
    /* Remember to save what IDENTIFIER's were bound in this scope so we
       can recover from cache misses.  */
    {
      previous_class_type = current_class_type;
      previous_class_values = class_binding_level->class_shadowed;
    }
  for (shadowed = level->type_shadowed;
       shadowed;
       shadowed = TREE_CHAIN (shadowed))
    SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (shadowed), TREE_VALUE (shadowed));

  GNU_xref_end_scope ((HOST_WIDE_INT) class_binding_level,
                  (HOST_WIDE_INT) class_binding_level->level_chain,
                  class_binding_level->parm_flag,
                  class_binding_level->keep);

  if (class_binding_level->parm_flag != 2)
    class_binding_level = (struct binding_level *)0;

  /* Now, pop out of the binding level which we created up in the
     `pushlevel_class' routine.  */
#if defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS)
  is_class_level = 1;
#endif /* defined(DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS) */

  pop_binding_level ();

  return block;
}

/* For debugging.  */
static int no_print_functions = 0;
static int no_print_builtins = 0;

void
print_binding_level (lvl)
     struct binding_level *lvl;
{
  tree t;
  int i = 0, len;
  fprintf (stderr, " blocks=");
  fprintf (stderr, HOST_PTR_PRINTF, lvl->blocks);
  fprintf (stderr, " n_incomplete=%d parm_flag=%d keep=%d",
         list_length (lvl->incomplete), lvl->parm_flag, lvl->keep);
  if (lvl->tag_transparent)
    fprintf (stderr, " tag-transparent");
  if (lvl->more_cleanups_ok)
    fprintf (stderr, " more-cleanups-ok");
  if (lvl->have_cleanups)
    fprintf (stderr, " have-cleanups");
  fprintf (stderr, "\n");
  if (lvl->names)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, " names:\t");
      /* We can probably fit 3 names to a line?  */
      for (t = lvl->names; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      {
        if (no_print_functions && (TREE_CODE (t) == FUNCTION_DECL)) 
          continue;
        if (no_print_builtins
            && (TREE_CODE (t) == TYPE_DECL)
            && (!strcmp (DECL_SOURCE_FILE (t),"<built-in>")))
          continue;

        /* Function decls tend to have longer names.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (t) == FUNCTION_DECL)
          len = 3;
        else
          len = 2;
        i += len;
        if (i > 6)
          {
            fprintf (stderr, "\n\t");
            i = len;
          }
        print_node_brief (stderr, "", t, 0);
        if (t == error_mark_node)
          break;
      }
      if (i)
        fprintf (stderr, "\n");
    }
  if (lvl->tags)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, " tags:\t");
      i = 0;
      for (t = lvl->tags; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      {
        if (TREE_PURPOSE (t) == NULL_TREE)
          len = 3;
        else if (TREE_PURPOSE (t) == TYPE_IDENTIFIER (TREE_VALUE (t)))
          len = 2;
        else
          len = 4;
        i += len;
        if (i > 5)
          {
            fprintf (stderr, "\n\t");
            i = len;
          }
        if (TREE_PURPOSE (t) == NULL_TREE)
          {
            print_node_brief (stderr, "<unnamed-typedef", TREE_VALUE (t), 0);
            fprintf (stderr, ">");
          }
        else if (TREE_PURPOSE (t) == TYPE_IDENTIFIER (TREE_VALUE (t)))
          print_node_brief (stderr, "", TREE_VALUE (t), 0);
        else
          {
            print_node_brief (stderr, "<typedef", TREE_PURPOSE (t), 0);
            print_node_brief (stderr, "", TREE_VALUE (t), 0);
            fprintf (stderr, ">");
          }
      }
      if (i)
      fprintf (stderr, "\n");
    }
  if (lvl->shadowed)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, " shadowed:");
      for (t = lvl->shadowed; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      {
        fprintf (stderr, " %s ", IDENTIFIER_POINTER (TREE_PURPOSE (t)));
      }
      fprintf (stderr, "\n");
    }
  if (lvl->class_shadowed)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, " class-shadowed:");
      for (t = lvl->class_shadowed; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      {
        fprintf (stderr, " %s ", IDENTIFIER_POINTER (TREE_PURPOSE (t)));
      }
      fprintf (stderr, "\n");
    }
  if (lvl->type_shadowed)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, " type-shadowed:");
      for (t = lvl->type_shadowed; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
        {
        fprintf (stderr, " %s ", IDENTIFIER_POINTER (TREE_PURPOSE (t)));
        }
      fprintf (stderr, "\n");
    }
}

void
print_other_binding_stack (stack)
     struct binding_level *stack;
{
  struct binding_level *level;
  for (level = stack; level != global_binding_level; level = level->level_chain)
    {
      fprintf (stderr, "binding level ");
      fprintf (stderr, HOST_PTR_PRINTF, level);
      fprintf (stderr, "\n");
      print_binding_level (level);
    }
}

void
print_binding_stack ()
{
  struct binding_level *b;
  fprintf (stderr, "current_binding_level=");
  fprintf (stderr, HOST_PTR_PRINTF, current_binding_level);
  fprintf (stderr, "\nclass_binding_level=");
  fprintf (stderr, HOST_PTR_PRINTF, class_binding_level);
  fprintf (stderr, "\nglobal_binding_level=");
  fprintf (stderr, HOST_PTR_PRINTF, global_binding_level);
  fprintf (stderr, "\n");
  if (class_binding_level)
    {
      for (b = class_binding_level; b; b = b->level_chain)
      if (b == current_binding_level)
        break;
      if (b)
      b = class_binding_level;
      else
      b = current_binding_level;
    }
  else
    b = current_binding_level;
  print_other_binding_stack (b);
  fprintf (stderr, "global:\n");
  print_binding_level (global_binding_level);
}

/* Namespace binding access routines: The namespace_bindings field of
   the identifier is polymorphic, with three possible values:
   NULL_TREE, a list of CPLUS_BINDINGS, or any other tree_node
   indicating the BINDING_VALUE of global_namespace. */

/* Check whether the a binding for the name to scope is known.
   Assumes that the bindings of the name are already a list
   of bindings. Returns the binding found, or NULL_TREE. */

static tree
find_binding (name, scope)
     tree name;
     tree scope;
{
  tree iter, prev = NULL_TREE;

  scope = ORIGINAL_NAMESPACE (scope);
  
  for (iter = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name); iter;
       iter = TREE_CHAIN (iter))
    {
      my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (iter) == CPLUS_BINDING, 374);
      if (BINDING_SCOPE (iter) == scope)
      {
        /* Move binding found to the fron of the list, so
             subsequent lookups will find it faster. */
        if (prev)
          {
            TREE_CHAIN (prev) = TREE_CHAIN (iter);
            TREE_CHAIN (iter) = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name);
            IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name) = iter;
          }
        return iter;
      }
      prev = iter;
    }
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Always returns a binding for name in scope. If the
   namespace_bindings is not a list, convert it to one first.
   If no binding is found, make a new one. */

tree
binding_for_name (name, scope)
     tree name;
     tree scope;
{
  tree b = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name);
  tree result;

  scope = ORIGINAL_NAMESPACE (scope);
  
  if (b && TREE_CODE (b) != CPLUS_BINDING)
    {
      /* Get rid of optimization for global scope. */
      IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name) = NULL_TREE;
      BINDING_VALUE (binding_for_name (name, global_namespace)) = b;
      b = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name);
    }
  if (b && (result = find_binding (name, scope)))
    return result;
  /* Not found, make a new permanent one. */
  push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
  result = make_node (CPLUS_BINDING);
  TREE_CHAIN (result) = b;
  IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name) = result;
  BINDING_SCOPE (result) = scope;
  BINDING_TYPE (result) = NULL_TREE;
  BINDING_VALUE (result) = NULL_TREE;
  pop_obstacks ();
  return result;
}

/* Return the binding value for name in scope, considering that
   namespace_binding may or may not be a list of CPLUS_BINDINGS. */

tree
namespace_binding (name, scope)
     tree name;
     tree scope;
{
  tree b = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name);
  if (b == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;
  if (scope == NULL_TREE)
    scope = global_namespace;
  if (TREE_CODE (b) != CPLUS_BINDING)
    return (scope == global_namespace) ? b : NULL_TREE;
  name = find_binding (name,scope);
  if (name == NULL_TREE)
    return name;
  return BINDING_VALUE (name);
}

/* Set the binding value for name in scope. If modifying the binding
   of global_namespace is attempted, try to optimize it. */

void
set_namespace_binding (name, scope, val)
     tree name;
     tree scope;
     tree val;
{
  tree b;

  if (scope == NULL_TREE)
    scope = global_namespace;
  
  if (scope == global_namespace)
    {
      b = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name);
      if (b == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (b) != CPLUS_BINDING)
      {
        IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_BINDINGS (name) = val;
        return;
      }
    }
  b = binding_for_name (name, scope);
  BINDING_VALUE (b) = val;
}

/* Push into the scope of the NAME namespace.  If NAME is NULL_TREE, then we
   select a name that is unique to this compilation unit.  */

void
push_namespace (name)
     tree name;
{
  tree d;
  int need_new = 1;
  int implicit_use = 0;
  int global = 0;
  if (!global_namespace)
    {
      /* This must be ::. */
      my_friendly_assert (name == get_identifier ("::"), 377);
      global = 1;
    }
  else if (!name)
    {
      /* The name of anonymous namespace is unique for the translation
         unit.  */
      static tree anon_name = NULL_TREE;
      if (!anon_name)
        anon_name = get_file_function_name ('N');
      name = anon_name;
      d = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name);
      if (d)
        /* Reopening anonymous namespace.  */
        need_new = 0;
      implicit_use = 1;
    }
  else if (current_namespace == global_namespace
         && name == DECL_NAME (std_node))
    {
      in_std++;
      return;
    }
  else
    {
      /* Check whether this is an extended namespace definition. */
      d = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name);
      if (d != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (d) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
        {
          need_new = 0;
          if (DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (d))
            {
              cp_error ("namespace alias `%D' not allowed here, assuming `%D'",
                        d, DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (d));
              d = DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (d);
            }
        }
    }
  
  if (need_new)
    {
      /* Make a new namespace, binding the name to it. */
      d = build_lang_decl (NAMESPACE_DECL, name, void_type_node);
      /* The global namespace is not pushed, and the global binding
       level is set elsewhere.  */
      if (!global)
      {
        d = pushdecl (d);
        pushlevel (0);
        declare_namespace_level ();
        NAMESPACE_LEVEL (d) = current_binding_level;
      }
    }
  else
    resume_binding_level (NAMESPACE_LEVEL (d));

  if (implicit_use)
    do_using_directive (d);
  /* Enter the name space. */
  current_namespace = d;
}

/* Pop from the scope of the current namespace.  */

void
pop_namespace ()
{
  if (current_namespace == global_namespace)
    {
      my_friendly_assert (in_std>0, 980421);
      in_std--;
      return;
    }
  current_namespace = CP_DECL_CONTEXT (current_namespace);
  /* The binding level is not popped, as it might be re-opened later.  */
  suspend_binding_level ();
}

/* Concatenate the binding levels of all namespaces. */

void
cat_namespace_levels()
{
  tree current;
  tree last;
  struct binding_level *b;

  last = NAMESPACE_LEVEL (global_namespace) -> names;
  /* The nested namespaces appear in the names list of their ancestors. */
  for (current = last; current; current = TREE_CHAIN (current))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (current) != NAMESPACE_DECL
          || DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (current))
      continue;
      if (!DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (current))
      {
        /* Hmm. std. */
        my_friendly_assert (current == std_node, 393);
        continue;
      }
      b = NAMESPACE_LEVEL (current);
      while (TREE_CHAIN (last))
      last = TREE_CHAIN (last);
      TREE_CHAIN (last) = NAMESPACE_LEVEL (current) -> names;
    }
}

/* Subroutines for reverting temporarily to top-level for instantiation
   of templates and such.  We actually need to clear out the class- and
   local-value slots of all identifiers, so that only the global values
   are at all visible.  Simply setting current_binding_level to the global
   scope isn't enough, because more binding levels may be pushed.  */
struct saved_scope {
  struct binding_level *old_binding_level;
  tree old_bindings;
  tree old_namespace;
  struct saved_scope *prev;
  tree class_name, class_type, function_decl;
  struct binding_level *class_bindings;
  tree *lang_base, *lang_stack, lang_name;
  int lang_stacksize;
  int minimal_parse_mode;
  tree last_function_parms;
  tree template_parms;
  HOST_WIDE_INT processing_template_decl;
  tree previous_class_type, previous_class_values;
  int processing_specialization;
  int processing_explicit_instantiation;
};
static struct saved_scope *current_saved_scope;

/* A chain of the binding vecs created by store_bindings.  We create a
   whole bunch of these during compilation, on permanent_obstack, so we
   can't just throw them away.  */
static tree free_binding_vecs;

static tree
store_bindings (names, old_bindings)
     tree names, old_bindings;
{
  tree t;
  for (t = names; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
    {
      tree binding, t1, id;

      if (TREE_CODE (t) == TREE_LIST)
      id = TREE_PURPOSE (t);
      else
      id = DECL_NAME (t);

      if (!id
        || (!IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id)
            && !IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (id)))
      continue;

      for (t1 = old_bindings; t1; t1 = TREE_CHAIN (t1))
      if (TREE_VEC_ELT (t1, 0) == id)
        goto skip_it;

      if (free_binding_vecs)
      {
        binding = free_binding_vecs;
        free_binding_vecs = TREE_CHAIN (free_binding_vecs);
      }
      else
      binding = make_tree_vec (4);

      if (id)
      {
        my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (id) == IDENTIFIER_NODE, 135);
        TREE_VEC_ELT (binding, 0) = id;
        TREE_VEC_ELT (binding, 1) = REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id);
        TREE_VEC_ELT (binding, 2) = IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id);
        TREE_VEC_ELT (binding, 3) = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (id);
        IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) = NULL_TREE;
        IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (id) = NULL_TREE;
      }
      TREE_CHAIN (binding) = old_bindings;
      old_bindings = binding;
    skip_it:
      ;
    }
  return old_bindings;
}

void
maybe_push_to_top_level (pseudo)
     int pseudo;
{
  extern int current_lang_stacksize;
  struct saved_scope *s
    = (struct saved_scope *) xmalloc (sizeof (struct saved_scope));
  struct binding_level *b = inner_binding_level;
  tree old_bindings = NULL_TREE;

  if (current_function_decl)
    push_cp_function_context (NULL_TREE);

  if (previous_class_type)
    old_bindings = store_bindings (previous_class_values, old_bindings);

  /* Have to include global_binding_level, because class-level decls
     aren't listed anywhere useful.  */
  for (; b; b = b->level_chain)
    {
      tree t;

      /* Template IDs are inserted into the global level. If they were
       inserted into namespace level, finish_file wouldn't find them
       when doing pending instantiations. Therefore, don't stop at
       namespace level, but continue until :: .  */
      if (b == global_binding_level || (pseudo && b->pseudo_global))
      break;

      old_bindings = store_bindings (b->names, old_bindings);
      /* We also need to check class_shadowed to save class-level type
       bindings, since pushclass doesn't fill in b->names.  */
      if (b->parm_flag == 2)
      old_bindings = store_bindings (b->class_shadowed, old_bindings);

      /* Unwind type-value slots back to top level.  */
      for (t = b->type_shadowed; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (t), TREE_VALUE (t));
    }

  s->old_binding_level = current_binding_level;
  current_binding_level = b;

  s->old_namespace = current_namespace;
  s->class_name = current_class_name;
  s->class_type = current_class_type;
  s->function_decl = current_function_decl;
  s->class_bindings = class_binding_level;
  s->lang_stack = current_lang_stack;
  s->lang_base = current_lang_base;
  s->lang_stacksize = current_lang_stacksize;
  s->lang_name = current_lang_name;
  s->minimal_parse_mode = minimal_parse_mode;
  s->last_function_parms = last_function_parms;
  s->template_parms = current_template_parms;
  s->processing_template_decl = processing_template_decl;
  s->previous_class_type = previous_class_type;
  s->previous_class_values = previous_class_values;
  s->processing_specialization = processing_specialization;
  s->processing_explicit_instantiation = processing_explicit_instantiation;

  current_class_name = current_class_type = NULL_TREE;
  current_function_decl = NULL_TREE;
  class_binding_level = (struct binding_level *)0;
  current_lang_stacksize = 10;
  current_lang_stack = current_lang_base
    = (tree *) xmalloc (current_lang_stacksize * sizeof (tree));
  current_lang_name = lang_name_cplusplus;
  strict_prototype = strict_prototypes_lang_cplusplus;
  named_labels = NULL_TREE;
  shadowed_labels = NULL_TREE;
  minimal_parse_mode = 0;
  previous_class_type = previous_class_values = NULL_TREE;
  processing_specialization = 0;
  processing_explicit_instantiation = 0;
  current_template_parms = NULL_TREE;
  processing_template_decl = 0;
  current_namespace = global_namespace;

  s->prev = current_saved_scope;
  s->old_bindings = old_bindings;
  current_saved_scope = s;

  push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
}

void
push_to_top_level ()
{
  maybe_push_to_top_level (0);
}

void
pop_from_top_level ()
{
  extern int current_lang_stacksize;
  struct saved_scope *s = current_saved_scope;
  tree t;

  /* Clear out class-level bindings cache.  */
  if (previous_class_type)
    {
      popclass (-1);
      previous_class_type = NULL_TREE;
    }

  pop_obstacks ();

  current_binding_level = s->old_binding_level;
  current_saved_scope = s->prev;
  for (t = s->old_bindings; t; )
    {
      tree save = t;
      tree id = TREE_VEC_ELT (t, 0);
      if (id)
      {
        SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id, TREE_VEC_ELT (t, 1));
        IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) = TREE_VEC_ELT (t, 2);
        IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (id) = TREE_VEC_ELT (t, 3);
      }
      t = TREE_CHAIN (t);
      TREE_CHAIN (save) = free_binding_vecs;
      free_binding_vecs = save;
    }
  current_namespace = s->old_namespace;
  current_class_name = s->class_name;
  current_class_type = s->class_type;
  current_function_decl = s->function_decl;
  class_binding_level = s->class_bindings;
  free (current_lang_base);
  current_lang_base = s->lang_base;
  current_lang_stack = s->lang_stack;
  current_lang_name = s->lang_name;
  current_lang_stacksize = s->lang_stacksize;
  if (current_lang_name == lang_name_cplusplus)
    strict_prototype = strict_prototypes_lang_cplusplus;
  else if (current_lang_name == lang_name_c)
    strict_prototype = strict_prototypes_lang_c;
  minimal_parse_mode = s->minimal_parse_mode;
  last_function_parms = s->last_function_parms;
  current_template_parms = s->template_parms;
  processing_template_decl = s->processing_template_decl;
  previous_class_type = s->previous_class_type;
  previous_class_values = s->previous_class_values;
  processing_specialization = s->processing_specialization;
  processing_explicit_instantiation = s->processing_explicit_instantiation;

  free (s);

  if (current_function_decl)
    pop_cp_function_context (NULL_TREE);
}

/* Push a definition of struct, union or enum tag "name".
   into binding_level "b".   "type" should be the type node, 
   We assume that the tag "name" is not already defined.

   Note that the definition may really be just a forward reference.
   In that case, the TYPE_SIZE will be a NULL_TREE.

   C++ gratuitously puts all these tags in the name space.  */

/* When setting the IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE field of an identifier ID,
   record the shadowed value for this binding contour.  TYPE is
   the type that ID maps to.  */

static void
set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (id, type, b)
     tree id;
     tree type;
     struct binding_level *b;
{
  if (!b->namespace_p)
    {
      /* Shadow the marker, not the real thing, so that the marker
       gets restored later. */
      tree old_type_value = REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id);
      b->type_shadowed
      = tree_cons (id, old_type_value, b->type_shadowed);
    }
  else
    {
      tree binding = binding_for_name (id, current_namespace);
      BINDING_TYPE (binding) = type;
      /* Store marker instead of real type. */
      type = global_type_node;
    }
  SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id, type);
}

/* As set_identifier_type_value_with_scope, but using inner_binding_level.  */

void
set_identifier_type_value (id, type)
     tree id;
     tree type;
{
  set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (id, type, inner_binding_level);
}

static void
set_identifier_local_value_with_scope (id, val, b)
     tree id, val;
     struct binding_level *b;
{
  tree oldlocal;
  my_friendly_assert (! b->namespace_p, 980716);

  oldlocal = IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id);
  b->shadowed = tree_cons (id, oldlocal, b->shadowed);
  IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (id) = val;
}

void
set_identifier_local_value (id, val)
     tree id, val;
{
  set_identifier_local_value_with_scope (id, val, current_binding_level);
}

/* Return the type associated with id. */

tree
identifier_type_value (id)
     tree id;
{
  /* There is no type with that name, anywhere. */
  if (REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id) == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;
  /* This is not the type marker, but the real thing. */
  if (REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id) != global_type_node)
    return REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id);
  /* Have to search for it. It must be on the global level, now.
     Ask lookup_name not to return non-types. */
  id = lookup_name_real (id, 2, 1, 0);
  if (id)
    return TREE_TYPE (id);
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Pop off extraneous binding levels left over due to syntax errors.

   We don't pop past namespaces, as they might be valid.  */

void
pop_everything ()
{
#ifdef DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS
  fprintf (stderr, "XXX entering pop_everything ()\n");
#endif
  while (! toplevel_bindings_p () && ! pseudo_global_level_p ())
    {
      if (class_binding_level)
      pop_nested_class (1);
      else
      poplevel (0, 0, 0);
    }
#ifdef DEBUG_CP_BINDING_LEVELS
  fprintf (stderr, "XXX leaving pop_everything ()\n");
#endif
}

/* Push a tag name NAME for struct/class/union/enum type TYPE.
   Normally put it into the inner-most non-tag-transparent scope,
   but if GLOBALIZE is true, put it in the inner-most non-class scope.
   The latter is needed for implicit declarations.  */

void
pushtag (name, type, globalize)
     tree name, type;
     int globalize;
{
  register struct binding_level *b;
  tree context = 0;
  tree c_decl = 0;

  b = inner_binding_level;
  while (b->tag_transparent
       || (globalize && b->parm_flag == 2))
    b = b->level_chain;

  if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    b->tags = perm_tree_cons (name, type, b->tags);
  else
    b->tags = saveable_tree_cons (name, type, b->tags);

  if (name)
    {
      context = type ? TYPE_CONTEXT (type) : NULL_TREE;
      if (! context)
      {
        tree cs = current_scope ();

        if (! globalize)
          context = cs;
        else if (cs != NULL_TREE 
               && TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (cs)) == 't')
          /* When declaring a friend class of a local class, we want
             to inject the newly named class into the scope
             containing the local class, not the namespace scope.  */
          context = hack_decl_function_context (get_type_decl (cs));
      }
      if (context)
      c_decl = TREE_CODE (context) == FUNCTION_DECL
        ? context : TYPE_MAIN_DECL (context);

      if (!context)
      context = current_namespace;

      /* Do C++ gratuitous typedefing.  */
      if (IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name) != type)
        {
          register tree d = NULL_TREE;
        int newdecl = 0, in_class = 0;

        if ((b->pseudo_global && b->level_chain->parm_flag == 2)
            || b->parm_flag == 2)
          in_class = 1;
        else
          d = lookup_nested_type (type, c_decl);

        if (d == NULL_TREE)
          {
            newdecl = 1;
            d = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, name, type);
            if (current_lang_name == lang_name_java)
            TYPE_FOR_JAVA (type) = 1;
            SET_DECL_ARTIFICIAL (d);
            if (! in_class)
            set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (name, type, b);
          }
        else
          d = TYPE_MAIN_DECL (d);

        TYPE_NAME (type) = d;
        DECL_CONTEXT (d) = FROB_CONTEXT (context);

        if (processing_template_parmlist)
          /* You can't declare a new template type in a template
             parameter list.  But, you can declare a non-template
             type:

               template <class A*> struct S;

             is a forward-declaration of `A'.  */
          ;
        else if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (type)
            && (/* If !GLOBALIZE then we are looking at a
                 definition.  It may not be a primary template.
                 (For example, in:
              
                   template <class T>
                   struct S1 { class S2 {}; }
              
                 we have to push_template_decl for S2.)  */
              (processing_template_decl && !globalize)
              /* If we are declaring a friend template class, we
                 will have GLOBALIZE set, since something like:

                   template <class T>
                   struct S1 {
                     template <class U>
                     friend class S2; 
                   };

                 declares S2 to be at global scope.  */
              || (processing_template_decl > 
                  template_class_depth (current_class_type))))
          {
            d = push_template_decl_real (d, globalize);
            /* If the current binding level is the binding level for
             the template parameters (see the comment in
             begin_template_parm_list) and the enclosing level is
             a class scope, and we're not looking at a friend,
             push the declaration of the member class into the
             class scope.  In the friend case, push_template_decl
             will already have put the friend into global scope,
             if appropriate.  */ 
            if (!globalize && b->pseudo_global &&
              b->level_chain->parm_flag == 2)
            {
              pushdecl_with_scope (CLASSTYPE_TI_TEMPLATE (type),
                               b->level_chain);
              /* Put this tag on the list of tags for the class,
                 since that won't happen below because B is not
                 the class binding level, but is instead the
                 pseudo-global level.  */
              b->level_chain->tags = 
                saveable_tree_cons (name, type, b->level_chain->tags);
              TREE_NONLOCAL_FLAG (type) = 1;
              if (TYPE_SIZE (current_class_type) == NULL_TREE)
                CLASSTYPE_TAGS (current_class_type) = b->level_chain->tags;
            }
          }

        if (b->parm_flag == 2)
          d = pushdecl_class_level (d);
        else
          d = pushdecl_with_scope (d, b);

        if (newdecl)
          {
            if (ANON_AGGRNAME_P (name))
            DECL_IGNORED_P (d) = 1;

            TYPE_CONTEXT (type) = DECL_CONTEXT (d);
            DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (d) = DECL_NAME (d);
            DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (d)
            = get_identifier (build_overload_name (type, 1, 1));
          }
        }
      if (b->parm_flag == 2)
      {
        TREE_NONLOCAL_FLAG (type) = 1;
        if (TYPE_SIZE (current_class_type) == NULL_TREE)
          CLASSTYPE_TAGS (current_class_type) = b->tags;
      }
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (type)) == TYPE_DECL)
    /* Use the canonical TYPE_DECL for this node.  */
    TYPE_STUB_DECL (type) = TYPE_NAME (type);
  else
    {
      /* Create a fake NULL-named TYPE_DECL node whose TREE_TYPE
       will be the tagged type we just added to the current
       binding level.  This fake NULL-named TYPE_DECL node helps
       dwarfout.c to know when it needs to output a
       representation of a tagged type, and it also gives us a
       convenient place to record the "scope start" address for
       the tagged type.  */

      tree d = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, type);
      TYPE_STUB_DECL (type) = pushdecl_with_scope (d, b);
    }
}

/* Counter used to create anonymous type names.  */

static int anon_cnt = 0;

/* Return an IDENTIFIER which can be used as a name for
   anonymous structs and unions.  */

tree
make_anon_name ()
{
  char buf[32];

  sprintf (buf, ANON_AGGRNAME_FORMAT, anon_cnt++);
  return get_identifier (buf);
}

/* Clear the TREE_PURPOSE slot of tags which have anonymous typenames.
   This keeps dbxout from getting confused.  */

void
clear_anon_tags ()
{
  register struct binding_level *b;
  register tree tags;
  static int last_cnt = 0;

  /* Fast out if no new anon names were declared.  */
  if (last_cnt == anon_cnt)
    return;

  b = current_binding_level;
  while (b->tag_transparent)
    b = b->level_chain;
  tags = b->tags;
  while (tags)
    {
      /* A NULL purpose means we have already processed all tags
       from here to the end of the list.  */
      if (TREE_PURPOSE (tags) == NULL_TREE)
      break;
      if (ANON_AGGRNAME_P (TREE_PURPOSE (tags)))
      TREE_PURPOSE (tags) = NULL_TREE;
      tags = TREE_CHAIN (tags);
    }
  last_cnt = anon_cnt;
}

/* Subroutine of duplicate_decls: return truthvalue of whether
   or not types of these decls match.

   For C++, we must compare the parameter list so that `int' can match
   `int&' in a parameter position, but `int&' is not confused with
   `const int&'.  */

int
decls_match (newdecl, olddecl)
     tree newdecl, olddecl;
{
  int types_match;

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
      && TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      tree f1 = TREE_TYPE (newdecl);
      tree f2 = TREE_TYPE (olddecl);
      tree p1 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (f1);
      tree p2 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (f2);

      if (DECL_REAL_CONTEXT (newdecl) != DECL_REAL_CONTEXT (olddecl)
        && ! (DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) == lang_c
            && DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl) == lang_c))
      return 0;

      /* When we parse a static member function definition,
       we put together a FUNCTION_DECL which thinks its type
       is METHOD_TYPE.  Change that to FUNCTION_TYPE, and
       proceed.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (f1) == METHOD_TYPE && DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (olddecl))
      revert_static_member_fn (&newdecl, &f1, &p1);
      else if (TREE_CODE (f2) == METHOD_TYPE
             && DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (newdecl))
      revert_static_member_fn (&olddecl, &f2, &p2);

      /* Here we must take care of the case where new default
       parameters are specified.  Also, warn if an old
       declaration becomes ambiguous because default
       parameters may cause the two to be ambiguous.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (f1) != TREE_CODE (f2))
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (f1) == OFFSET_TYPE)
          cp_compiler_error ("`%D' redeclared as member function", newdecl);
        else
          cp_compiler_error ("`%D' redeclared as non-member function", newdecl);
        return 0;
      }

      if (comptypes (TREE_TYPE (f1), TREE_TYPE (f2), 1))
      {
        if (! strict_prototypes_lang_c && DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl) == lang_c
            && p2 == NULL_TREE)
          {
            types_match = self_promoting_args_p (p1);
            if (p1 == void_list_node)
            TREE_TYPE (newdecl) = TREE_TYPE (olddecl);
          }
        else if (!strict_prototypes_lang_c && DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl)==lang_c
               && DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) == lang_c && p1 == NULL_TREE)
          {
            types_match = self_promoting_args_p (p2);
            TREE_TYPE (newdecl) = TREE_TYPE (olddecl);
          }
        else
          types_match = compparms (p1, p2, 3);
      }
      else
      types_match = 0;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL
         && TREE_CODE (olddecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
    {
      if (!comp_template_parms (DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (newdecl),
                        DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (olddecl)))
      return 0;
      
      if (TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == TYPE_DECL)
      types_match = 1;
      else
      types_match = decls_match (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl),
                           DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl));
    }
  else
    {
      if (TREE_TYPE (newdecl) == error_mark_node)
      types_match = TREE_TYPE (olddecl) == error_mark_node;
      else if (TREE_TYPE (olddecl) == NULL_TREE)
      types_match = TREE_TYPE (newdecl) == NULL_TREE;
      else if (TREE_TYPE (newdecl) == NULL_TREE)
      types_match = 0;
      /* Qualifiers must match, and they may be present on either, the type
       or the decl.  */
      else if ((TREE_READONLY (newdecl)
            || TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)))
             == (TREE_READONLY (olddecl)
               || TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (olddecl)))
             && (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (newdecl)
                || TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)))
               == (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (olddecl)
                   || TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (olddecl))))
      types_match = comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)),
                         TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (olddecl)), 1);
      else
      types_match = 0;
    }

  return types_match;
}

/* If NEWDECL is `static' and an `extern' was seen previously,
   warn about it.  (OLDDECL may be NULL_TREE; NAME contains
   information about previous usage as an `extern'.)

   Note that this does not apply to the C++ case of declaring
   a variable `extern const' and then later `const'.

   Don't complain about built-in functions, since they are beyond
   the user's control.  */

static void
warn_extern_redeclared_static (newdecl, olddecl)
     tree newdecl, olddecl;
{
  tree name;

  static char *explicit_extern_static_warning
    = "`%D' was declared `extern' and later `static'";
  static char *implicit_extern_static_warning
    = "`%D' was declared implicitly `extern' and later `static'";

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TYPE_DECL)
    return;

  name = DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (newdecl);
  if (TREE_PUBLIC (name) && DECL_THIS_STATIC (newdecl))
    {
      /* It's okay to redeclare an ANSI built-in function as static,
       or to declare a non-ANSI built-in function as anything.  */
      if (! (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
           && olddecl != NULL_TREE
           && TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
           && (DECL_BUILT_IN (olddecl)
             || DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (olddecl))))
      {
        cp_pedwarn (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name)
                  ? implicit_extern_static_warning
                  : explicit_extern_static_warning, newdecl);
        if (olddecl != NULL_TREE)
          cp_pedwarn_at ("previous declaration of `%D'", olddecl);
      }
    }
}

/* Handle when a new declaration NEWDECL has the same name as an old
   one OLDDECL in the same binding contour.  Prints an error message
   if appropriate.

   If safely possible, alter OLDDECL to look like NEWDECL, and return 1.
   Otherwise, return 0.  */

int
duplicate_decls (newdecl, olddecl)
     tree newdecl, olddecl;
{
  extern struct obstack permanent_obstack;
  unsigned olddecl_uid = DECL_UID (olddecl);
  int olddecl_friend = 0, types_match = 0;
  int new_defines_function = 0;

  if (newdecl == olddecl)
    return 1;

  types_match = decls_match (newdecl, olddecl);

  /* If either the type of the new decl or the type of the old decl is an
     error_mark_node, then that implies that we have already issued an
     error (earlier) for some bogus type specification, and in that case,
     it is rather pointless to harass the user with yet more error message
     about the same declaration, so just pretend the types match here.  */
  if (TREE_TYPE (newdecl) == error_mark_node
      || TREE_TYPE (olddecl) == error_mark_node)
    types_match = 1;
 
  /* Check for redeclaration and other discrepancies. */
  if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
      && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (olddecl)
      && (DECL_BUILT_IN (olddecl) || DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (olddecl)))
    {
      /* If you declare a built-in or predefined function name as static,
       the old definition is overridden, but optionally warn this was a
       bad choice of name.  Ditto for overloads.  */
      if (! TREE_PUBLIC (newdecl)
        || (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
            && DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) != DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl)))
      {
        if (warn_shadow)
          cp_warning ("shadowing %s function `%#D'",
                  DECL_BUILT_IN (olddecl) ? "built-in" : "library",
                  olddecl);
        /* Discard the old built-in function.  */
        return 0;
      }
      else if (! types_match)
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) != FUNCTION_DECL)
          {
            /* If the built-in is not ansi, then programs can override
             it even globally without an error.  */
            if (! DECL_BUILT_IN (olddecl))
            cp_warning ("library function `%#D' redeclared as non-function `%#D'",
                      olddecl, newdecl);
            else
            {
              cp_error ("declaration of `%#D'", newdecl);
              cp_error ("conflicts with built-in declaration `%#D'",
                      olddecl);
            }
            return 0;
          }

        cp_warning ("declaration of `%#D'", newdecl);
        cp_warning ("conflicts with built-in declaration `%#D'",
                  olddecl);
      }
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) != TREE_CODE (newdecl))
    {
      if ((TREE_CODE (olddecl) == TYPE_DECL && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (olddecl)
         && TREE_CODE (newdecl) != TYPE_DECL
         && ! (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL
             && TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == TYPE_DECL))
        || (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TYPE_DECL && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (newdecl)
            && TREE_CODE (olddecl) != TYPE_DECL
            && ! (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL
                && (TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl))
                  == TYPE_DECL))))
      {
        /* We do nothing special here, because C++ does such nasty
           things with TYPE_DECLs.  Instead, just let the TYPE_DECL
           get shadowed, and know that if we need to find a TYPE_DECL
           for a given name, we can look in the IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE
           slot of the identifier.  */
        return 0;
      }

      if ((TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
         && DECL_FUNCTION_TEMPLATE_P (olddecl))
        || (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
            && DECL_FUNCTION_TEMPLATE_P (newdecl)))
      return 0;

      cp_error ("`%#D' redeclared as different kind of symbol", newdecl);
      if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == TREE_LIST)
      olddecl = TREE_VALUE (olddecl);
      cp_error_at ("previous declaration of `%#D'", olddecl);

      /* New decl is completely inconsistent with the old one =>
       tell caller to replace the old one.  */

      return 0;
    }
  else if (!types_match)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
      {
        /* The name of a class template may not be declared to refer to
           any other template, class, function, object, namespace, value,
           or type in the same scope.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl)) == TYPE_DECL
            || TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == TYPE_DECL)
          {
            cp_error ("declaration of template `%#D'", newdecl);
            cp_error_at ("conflicts with previous declaration `%#D'",
                     olddecl);
          }
        else if (TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl)) == FUNCTION_DECL
               && TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == FUNCTION_DECL
               && compparms (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl))),
                         TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl))), 3)
               && comp_template_parms (DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (newdecl),
                                 DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (olddecl)))
          {
            cp_error ("new declaration `%#D'", newdecl);
            cp_error_at ("ambiguates old declaration `%#D'", olddecl);
          }
        return 0;
      }
      if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
      {
        if (DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) == lang_c
            && DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl) == lang_c)
          {
            cp_error ("declaration of C function `%#D' conflicts with",
                  newdecl);
            cp_error_at ("previous declaration `%#D' here", olddecl);
          }
        else if (compparms (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)),
                        TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (olddecl)), 3))
          {
            cp_error ("new declaration `%#D'", newdecl);
            cp_error_at ("ambiguates old declaration `%#D'", olddecl);
          }
        else
          return 0;
      }

      /* Already complained about this, so don't do so again.  */
      else if (current_class_type == NULL_TREE
        || IDENTIFIER_ERROR_LOCUS (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (newdecl)) != current_class_type)
      {
        cp_error ("conflicting types for `%#D'", newdecl);
        cp_error_at ("previous declaration as `%#D'", olddecl);
      }
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL 
          && ((DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (olddecl)
             && (!DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (newdecl)
                 || (DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (newdecl) 
                   != DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (olddecl))))
            || (DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (newdecl)
                && (!DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (olddecl)
                  || (DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (olddecl) 
                      != DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (newdecl))))))
    /* It's OK to have a template specialization and a non-template
       with the same type, or to have specializations of two
       different templates with the same type.  Note that if one is a
       specialization, and the other is an instantiation of the same
       template, that we do not exit at this point.  That situation
       can occur if we instantiate a template class, and then
       specialize one of its methods.  This situation is legal, but
       the declarations must be merged in the usual way.  */
    return 0;
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL 
         && ((DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (olddecl) 
            && !DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (newdecl))
             || (DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (newdecl)
               && !DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (olddecl))))
    /* One of the declarations is a template instantiation, and the
       other is not a template at all.  That's OK.  */
    return 0;
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == NAMESPACE_DECL
           && DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (newdecl)
           && DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (newdecl) == DECL_NAMESPACE_ALIAS (olddecl))
    /* Redeclaration of namespace alias, ignore it. */
    return 1;
  else
    {
      char *errmsg = redeclaration_error_message (newdecl, olddecl);
      if (errmsg)
      {
        cp_error (errmsg, newdecl);
        if (DECL_NAME (olddecl) != NULL_TREE)
          cp_error_at ((DECL_INITIAL (olddecl)
                    && namespace_bindings_p ())
                   ? "`%#D' previously defined here"
                   : "`%#D' previously declared here", olddecl);
      }
      else if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
             && DECL_INITIAL (olddecl) != NULL_TREE
             && TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (olddecl)) == NULL_TREE
             && TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)) != NULL_TREE)
      {
        /* Prototype decl follows defn w/o prototype.  */
        cp_warning_at ("prototype for `%#D'", newdecl);
        cp_warning_at ("follows non-prototype definition here", olddecl);
      }
      else if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
             && DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) != DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl))
      {
        /* extern "C" int foo ();
           int foo () { bar (); }
           is OK.  */
        if (current_lang_stack == current_lang_base)
          DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) = DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl);
        else
          {
            cp_error_at ("previous declaration of `%#D' with %L linkage",
                     olddecl, DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl));
            cp_error ("conflicts with new declaration with %L linkage",
                  DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl));
          }
      }

      if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl) && DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (olddecl))
      ;
      else if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
      {
        tree t1 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (olddecl));
        tree t2 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (newdecl));
        int i = 1;

        if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)) == METHOD_TYPE)
          t1 = TREE_CHAIN (t1), t2 = TREE_CHAIN (t2);
      
        for (; t1 && t1 != void_list_node;
             t1 = TREE_CHAIN (t1), t2 = TREE_CHAIN (t2), i++)
          if (TREE_PURPOSE (t1) && TREE_PURPOSE (t2))
            {
            if (1 == simple_cst_equal (TREE_PURPOSE (t1),
                                 TREE_PURPOSE (t2)))
              {
                if (pedantic)
                  {
                  cp_pedwarn ("default argument given for parameter %d of `%#D'",
                            i, newdecl);
                  cp_pedwarn_at ("after previous specification in `%#D'",
                               olddecl);
                  }
              }
            else
              {
                cp_error ("default argument given for parameter %d of `%#D'",
                        i, newdecl);
                cp_error_at ("after previous specification in `%#D'",
                         olddecl);
              }
            }

        if (DECL_THIS_INLINE (newdecl) && ! DECL_THIS_INLINE (olddecl)
            && TREE_ADDRESSABLE (olddecl) && warn_inline)
          {
            cp_warning ("`%#D' was used before it was declared inline",
                    newdecl);
            cp_warning_at ("previous non-inline declaration here",
                       olddecl);
          }
      }
      /* These bits are logically part of the type for non-functions.  */
      else if (TREE_READONLY (newdecl) != TREE_READONLY (olddecl)
             || TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (newdecl) != TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (olddecl))
      {
        cp_pedwarn ("type qualifiers for `%#D'", newdecl);
        cp_pedwarn_at ("conflict with previous decl `%#D'", olddecl);
      }
    }

  /* If new decl is `static' and an `extern' was seen previously,
     warn about it.  */
  warn_extern_redeclared_static (newdecl, olddecl);

  /* We have committed to returning 1 at this point.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      /* Now that functions must hold information normally held
       by field decls, there is extra work to do so that
       declaration information does not get destroyed during
       definition.  */
      if (DECL_VINDEX (olddecl))
      DECL_VINDEX (newdecl) = DECL_VINDEX (olddecl);
      if (DECL_CONTEXT (olddecl))
      DECL_CONTEXT (newdecl) = DECL_CONTEXT (olddecl);
      if (DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (olddecl))
      DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (newdecl) = DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (olddecl);
      if (DECL_PENDING_INLINE_INFO (newdecl) == (struct pending_inline *)0)
      DECL_PENDING_INLINE_INFO (newdecl) = DECL_PENDING_INLINE_INFO (olddecl);
      DECL_STATIC_CONSTRUCTOR (newdecl) |= DECL_STATIC_CONSTRUCTOR (olddecl);
      DECL_STATIC_DESTRUCTOR (newdecl) |= DECL_STATIC_DESTRUCTOR (olddecl);
      DECL_ABSTRACT_VIRTUAL_P (newdecl) |= DECL_ABSTRACT_VIRTUAL_P (olddecl);
      DECL_VIRTUAL_P (newdecl) |= DECL_VIRTUAL_P (olddecl);
      DECL_NEEDS_FINAL_OVERRIDER_P (newdecl) |= DECL_NEEDS_FINAL_OVERRIDER_P (olddecl);
      new_defines_function = DECL_INITIAL (newdecl) != NULL_TREE;
      
      /* Optionally warn about more than one declaration for the same
         name, but don't warn about a function declaration followed by a
         definition.  */
      if (warn_redundant_decls && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (olddecl)
        && !(new_defines_function && DECL_INITIAL (olddecl) == NULL_TREE)
        /* Don't warn about extern decl followed by definition. */
        && !(DECL_EXTERNAL (olddecl) && ! DECL_EXTERNAL (newdecl))
        /* Don't warn about friends, let add_friend take care of it. */
        && ! DECL_FRIEND_P (newdecl))
      {
        cp_warning ("redundant redeclaration of `%D' in same scope", newdecl);
        cp_warning_at ("previous declaration of `%D'", olddecl);
      }
    }

  /* Deal with C++: must preserve virtual function table size.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (olddecl) == TYPE_DECL)
    {
      register tree newtype = TREE_TYPE (newdecl);
      register tree oldtype = TREE_TYPE (olddecl);

      if (newtype != error_mark_node && oldtype != error_mark_node
        && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (newtype) && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (oldtype))
      {
        CLASSTYPE_VSIZE (newtype) = CLASSTYPE_VSIZE (oldtype);
        CLASSTYPE_FRIEND_CLASSES (newtype)
          = CLASSTYPE_FRIEND_CLASSES (oldtype);
      }
    }

  /* Copy all the DECL_... slots specified in the new decl
     except for any that we copy here from the old type.  */
  DECL_MACHINE_ATTRIBUTES (newdecl) 
    = merge_machine_decl_attributes (olddecl, newdecl);

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
    {
      if (DECL_INITIAL (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl)) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        if (! duplicate_decls (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl),
                         DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl)))
          cp_error ("invalid redeclaration of %D", newdecl);
        TREE_TYPE (olddecl) = TREE_TYPE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl));
        DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (olddecl) = DECL_TEMPLATE_PARMS (newdecl);
        DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (olddecl) = DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (newdecl);
      }
      DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATIONS (newdecl)
      = DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATIONS (olddecl);
 
      return 1;
    }
    
  if (types_match)
    {
      /* Automatically handles default parameters.  */
      tree oldtype = TREE_TYPE (olddecl);
      tree newtype;

      /* Make sure we put the new type in the same obstack as the old one.  */
      if (oldtype)
      push_obstacks (TYPE_OBSTACK (oldtype), TYPE_OBSTACK (oldtype));
      else
      {
        push_obstacks_nochange ();
        end_temporary_allocation ();
      }

      /* Merge the data types specified in the two decls.  */
      newtype = common_type (TREE_TYPE (newdecl), TREE_TYPE (olddecl));

      if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == VAR_DECL)
      DECL_THIS_EXTERN (newdecl) |= DECL_THIS_EXTERN (olddecl);
      /* Do this after calling `common_type' so that default
       parameters don't confuse us.  */
      else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL
        && (TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (TREE_TYPE (newdecl))
            != TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (TREE_TYPE (olddecl))))
      {
        TREE_TYPE (newdecl) = build_exception_variant (newtype,
                                           TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (TREE_TYPE (newdecl)));
        TREE_TYPE (olddecl) = build_exception_variant (newtype,
                                           TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (oldtype));

        if ((pedantic || ! DECL_IN_SYSTEM_HEADER (olddecl))
            && DECL_SOURCE_LINE (olddecl) != 0
            && flag_exceptions
            && ! compexcepttypes (TREE_TYPE (newdecl), TREE_TYPE (olddecl)))
          {
            cp_pedwarn ("declaration of `%D' throws different exceptions",
                  newdecl);
            cp_pedwarn_at ("previous declaration here", olddecl);
          }
      }
      TREE_TYPE (newdecl) = TREE_TYPE (olddecl) = newtype;

      /* Lay the type out, unless already done.  */
      if (newtype != canonical_type_variant (oldtype)
        && TREE_TYPE (newdecl) != error_mark_node
        && !(processing_template_decl && uses_template_parms (newdecl)))
      layout_type (TREE_TYPE (newdecl));

      if ((TREE_CODE (newdecl) == VAR_DECL
         || TREE_CODE (newdecl) == PARM_DECL
         || TREE_CODE (newdecl) == RESULT_DECL
         || TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FIELD_DECL
         || TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TYPE_DECL)
        && !(processing_template_decl && uses_template_parms (newdecl)))
      layout_decl (newdecl, 0);

      /* Merge the type qualifiers.  */
      if (TREE_READONLY (newdecl))
      TREE_READONLY (olddecl) = 1;
      if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (newdecl))
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (olddecl) = 1;

      /* Merge the initialization information.  */
      if (DECL_INITIAL (newdecl) == NULL_TREE
        && DECL_INITIAL (olddecl) != NULL_TREE)
      {
        DECL_INITIAL (newdecl) = DECL_INITIAL (olddecl);
        DECL_SOURCE_FILE (newdecl) = DECL_SOURCE_FILE (olddecl);
        DECL_SOURCE_LINE (newdecl) = DECL_SOURCE_LINE (olddecl);
      }

      /* Merge the section attribute.
         We want to issue an error if the sections conflict but that must be
       done later in decl_attributes since we are called before attributes
       are assigned.  */
      if (DECL_SECTION_NAME (newdecl) == NULL_TREE)
      DECL_SECTION_NAME (newdecl) = DECL_SECTION_NAME (olddecl);

      /* Keep the old rtl since we can safely use it, unless it's the
       call to abort() used for abstract virtuals.  */
      if ((DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl)
         && !DECL_ABSTRACT_VIRTUAL_P (olddecl))
        || DECL_RTL (olddecl) != DECL_RTL (abort_fndecl))
      DECL_RTL (newdecl) = DECL_RTL (olddecl);

      pop_obstacks ();
    }
  /* If cannot merge, then use the new type and qualifiers,
     and don't preserve the old rtl.  */
  else
    {
      /* Clean out any memory we had of the old declaration.  */
      tree oldstatic = value_member (olddecl, static_aggregates);
      if (oldstatic)
      TREE_VALUE (oldstatic) = error_mark_node;

      TREE_TYPE (olddecl) = TREE_TYPE (newdecl);
      TREE_READONLY (olddecl) = TREE_READONLY (newdecl);
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (olddecl) = TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (newdecl);
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (olddecl) = TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (newdecl);
    }

  /* Merge the storage class information.  */
  DECL_WEAK (newdecl) |= DECL_WEAK (olddecl);
  DECL_ONE_ONLY (newdecl) |= DECL_ONE_ONLY (olddecl);
  TREE_PUBLIC (newdecl) = TREE_PUBLIC (olddecl);
  TREE_STATIC (olddecl) = TREE_STATIC (newdecl) |= TREE_STATIC (olddecl);
  if (! DECL_EXTERNAL (olddecl))
    DECL_EXTERNAL (newdecl) = 0;
  
  if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (newdecl) && DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl))
    {
      DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (newdecl) |= DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (olddecl);
      DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (newdecl) |= DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (olddecl);
      DECL_COMDAT (newdecl) |= DECL_COMDAT (olddecl);
      /* Don't really know how much of the language-specific
       values we should copy from old to new.  */
      DECL_IN_AGGR_P (newdecl) = DECL_IN_AGGR_P (olddecl);
      DECL_ACCESS (newdecl) = DECL_ACCESS (olddecl);
      DECL_NONCONVERTING_P (newdecl) = DECL_NONCONVERTING_P (olddecl);
      if (DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (newdecl) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (newdecl) = DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (olddecl);
        DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (newdecl) = DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (olddecl);
      }
      olddecl_friend = DECL_FRIEND_P (olddecl);
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      if (DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (olddecl) 
        && !DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (newdecl)) 
      {
        /* If newdecl is not a specialization, then it is not a
           template-related function at all.  And that means that we
           shoud have exited above, returning 0.  */
        my_friendly_assert (DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (newdecl),
                        0);

        if (TREE_USED (olddecl)) 
          /* From [temp.expl.spec]:
             
             If a template, a member template or the member of a class
             template is explicitly specialized then that
             specialization shall be declared before the first use of
             that specialization that would cause an implicit
             instantiation to take place, in every translation unit in
             which such a use occurs.  */
          cp_error ("explicit specialization of %D after first use", 
                  olddecl);

        SET_DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (olddecl);
      }
      DECL_THIS_INLINE (newdecl) |= DECL_THIS_INLINE (olddecl);

      /* If either decl says `inline', this fn is inline, unless its
         definition was passed already.  */
      if (DECL_INLINE (newdecl) && DECL_INITIAL (olddecl) == NULL_TREE)
      DECL_INLINE (olddecl) = 1;
      DECL_INLINE (newdecl) = DECL_INLINE (olddecl);

      if (! types_match)
      {
        DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl) = DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl);
        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (olddecl) = DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (newdecl);
        DECL_RTL (olddecl) = DECL_RTL (newdecl);
      }
      if (! types_match || new_defines_function)
      {
        /* These need to be copied so that the names are available.  */
        DECL_ARGUMENTS (olddecl) = DECL_ARGUMENTS (newdecl);
        DECL_RESULT (olddecl) = DECL_RESULT (newdecl);
      }
      if (new_defines_function)
      /* If defining a function declared with other language
         linkage, use the previously declared language linkage.  */
      DECL_LANGUAGE (newdecl) = DECL_LANGUAGE (olddecl);
      else
      {
        /* If redeclaring a builtin function, and not a definition,
           it stays built in.  */
        if (DECL_BUILT_IN (olddecl))
          {
            DECL_BUILT_IN (newdecl) = 1;
            DECL_FUNCTION_CODE (newdecl) = DECL_FUNCTION_CODE (olddecl);
            /* If we're keeping the built-in definition, keep the rtl,
             regardless of declaration matches.  */
            DECL_RTL (newdecl) = DECL_RTL (olddecl);
          }
        else
          DECL_FRAME_SIZE (newdecl) = DECL_FRAME_SIZE (olddecl);

        DECL_RESULT (newdecl) = DECL_RESULT (olddecl);
        if ((DECL_SAVED_INSNS (newdecl) = DECL_SAVED_INSNS (olddecl)))
          /* Previously saved insns go together with
             the function's previous definition.  */
          DECL_INITIAL (newdecl) = DECL_INITIAL (olddecl);
        /* Don't clear out the arguments if we're redefining a function.  */
        if (DECL_ARGUMENTS (olddecl))
          DECL_ARGUMENTS (newdecl) = DECL_ARGUMENTS (olddecl);
      }
      if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl))
      DECL_MAIN_VARIANT (newdecl) = DECL_MAIN_VARIANT (olddecl);
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
    {
      NAMESPACE_LEVEL (newdecl) = NAMESPACE_LEVEL (olddecl);
    }

  /* Now preserve various other info from the definition.  */
  TREE_ADDRESSABLE (newdecl) = TREE_ADDRESSABLE (olddecl);
  TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (newdecl) = TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (olddecl);
  DECL_COMMON (newdecl) = DECL_COMMON (olddecl);
  DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (newdecl) = DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (olddecl);

  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      int function_size;
      struct lang_decl *ol = DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl);
      struct lang_decl *nl = DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (newdecl);

      function_size = sizeof (struct tree_decl);

      bcopy ((char *) newdecl + sizeof (struct tree_common),
           (char *) olddecl + sizeof (struct tree_common),
           function_size - sizeof (struct tree_common));

      /* Can we safely free the storage used by newdecl?  */

#define ROUND(x) ((x + obstack_alignment_mask (&permanent_obstack)) \
              & ~ obstack_alignment_mask (&permanent_obstack))

      if (DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (newdecl))
      {
        /* If newdecl is a template instantiation, it is possible that
           the following sequence of events has occurred:

           o A friend function was declared in a class template.  The
           class template was instantiated.  

           o The instantiation of the friend declaration was 
           recorded on the instantiation list, and is newdecl.  

           o Later, however, instantiate_class_template called pushdecl
           on the newdecl to perform name injection.  But, pushdecl in
           turn called duplicate_decls when it discovered that another
           declaration of a global function with the same name already
           existed. 

           o Here, in duplicate_decls, we decided to clobber newdecl.

           If we're going to do that, we'd better make sure that
           olddecl, and not newdecl, is on the list of
           instantiations so that if we try to do the instantiation
           again we won't get the clobbered declaration.  */

        tree tmpl = DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (newdecl); 
        tree decls = DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATIONS (tmpl); 

        for (; decls; decls = TREE_CHAIN (decls))
          if (TREE_VALUE (decls) == newdecl)
            TREE_VALUE (decls) = olddecl;
      }

      if (((char *)newdecl + ROUND (function_size) == (char *)nl
         && ((char *)newdecl + ROUND (function_size)
             + ROUND (sizeof (struct lang_decl))
             == obstack_next_free (&permanent_obstack)))
        || ((char *)newdecl + ROUND (function_size)
            == obstack_next_free (&permanent_obstack)))
      {
        DECL_MAIN_VARIANT (newdecl) = olddecl;
        DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl) = ol;
        bcopy ((char *)nl, (char *)ol, sizeof (struct lang_decl));

        obstack_free (&permanent_obstack, newdecl);
      }
      else if (LANG_DECL_PERMANENT (ol) && ol != nl)
      {
        if (DECL_MAIN_VARIANT (olddecl) == olddecl)
          {
            /* Save these lang_decls that would otherwise be lost.  */
            extern tree free_lang_decl_chain;
            tree free_lang_decl = (tree) ol;

            if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl) == ol)
            abort ();

            TREE_CHAIN (free_lang_decl) = free_lang_decl_chain;
            free_lang_decl_chain = free_lang_decl;
          }
        else
          {
            /* Storage leak.  */;
          }
      }
    }
  else
    {
      bcopy ((char *) newdecl + sizeof (struct tree_common),
           (char *) olddecl + sizeof (struct tree_common),
           sizeof (struct tree_decl) - sizeof (struct tree_common)
           + tree_code_length [(int)TREE_CODE (newdecl)] * sizeof (char *));
    }

  DECL_UID (olddecl) = olddecl_uid;
  if (olddecl_friend)
    DECL_FRIEND_P (olddecl) = 1;

  /* NEWDECL contains the merged attribute lists.
     Update OLDDECL to be the same.  */
  DECL_MACHINE_ATTRIBUTES (olddecl) = DECL_MACHINE_ATTRIBUTES (newdecl);

  return 1;
}

/* Record a decl-node X as belonging to the current lexical scope.
   Check for errors (such as an incompatible declaration for the same
   name already seen in the same scope).

   Returns either X or an old decl for the same name.
   If an old decl is returned, it may have been smashed
   to agree with what X says.  */

tree
pushdecl (x)
     tree x;
{
  register tree t;
  register tree name = DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (x);
  register struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;

  if (current_function_decl && x != current_function_decl
      /* A local declaration for a function doesn't constitute nesting.  */
      && (TREE_CODE (x) != FUNCTION_DECL || DECL_INITIAL (x))
      /* Don't change DECL_CONTEXT of virtual methods.  */
      && (TREE_CODE (x) != FUNCTION_DECL || !DECL_VIRTUAL_P (x))
      && ! DECL_CONTEXT (x))
    DECL_CONTEXT (x) = current_function_decl;
  if (!DECL_CONTEXT (x))
    DECL_CONTEXT (x) = FROB_CONTEXT (current_namespace);

  /* Type are looked up using the DECL_NAME, as that is what the rest of the
     compiler wants to use.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL || TREE_CODE (x) == VAR_DECL
      || TREE_CODE (x) == NAMESPACE_DECL || TREE_CODE (x) == TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
      || TREE_CODE (x) == TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM)
    name = DECL_NAME (x);

  if (name)
    {
#if 0
      /* Not needed...see below.  */
      char *file;
      int line;
#endif
      if (TREE_CODE (name) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
      name = TREE_OPERAND (name, 0);
      
      /* Namespace-scoped variables are not found in the current level. */
      if (TREE_CODE (x) == VAR_DECL && DECL_NAMESPACE_SCOPE_P (x))
      t = namespace_binding (name, DECL_CONTEXT (x));
      else
      t = lookup_name_current_level (name);
      if (t == error_mark_node)
      {
        /* error_mark_node is 0 for a while during initialization!  */
        t = NULL_TREE;
        cp_error_at ("`%#D' used prior to declaration", x);
      }

      else if (t != NULL_TREE)
      {
#if 0
        /* This is turned off until I have time to do it right (bpk).  */
        /* With the code below that uses it...  */
        file = DECL_SOURCE_FILE (t);
        line = DECL_SOURCE_LINE (t);
#endif
        if (TREE_CODE (t) == PARM_DECL)
          {
            if (DECL_CONTEXT (t) == NULL_TREE)
            fatal ("parse errors have confused me too much");

            /* Check for duplicate params.  */
            if (duplicate_decls (x, t))
            return t;
          }
        else if (((TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL && DECL_LANGUAGE (x) == lang_c)
                || DECL_FUNCTION_TEMPLATE_P (x))
               && is_overloaded_fn (t))
          /* Don't do anything just yet. */;
        else if (t == wchar_decl_node)
          {
            if (pedantic && ! DECL_IN_SYSTEM_HEADER (x))
            cp_pedwarn ("redeclaration of wchar_t as `%T'", TREE_TYPE (x));

            /* Throw away the redeclaration.  */
            return t;
          }
        else if (TREE_CODE (t) != TREE_CODE (x))
          {
            if (duplicate_decls (x, t))
            return t;
          }
        else if (duplicate_decls (x, t))
          {
#if 0
            /* This is turned off until I have time to do it right (bpk).  */

            /* Also warn if they did a prototype with `static' on it, but
             then later left the `static' off.  */
            if (! TREE_PUBLIC (name) && TREE_PUBLIC (x))
            {
              if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (t) && DECL_FRIEND_P (t))
                return t;

              if (extra_warnings)
                {
                  cp_warning ("`static' missing from declaration of `%D'",
                          t);
                  warning_with_file_and_line (file, line,
                                      "previous declaration of `%s'",
                                      decl_as_string (t, 0));
                }

              /* Now fix things so it'll do what they expect.  */
              if (current_function_decl)
                TREE_PUBLIC (current_function_decl) = 0;
            }
            /* Due to interference in memory reclamation (X may be
             obstack-deallocated at this point), we must guard against
             one really special case.  [jason: This should be handled
             by start_function]  */
            if (current_function_decl == x)
            current_function_decl = t;
#endif
            if (TREE_CODE (t) == TYPE_DECL)
            SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name, TREE_TYPE (t));
            else if (TREE_CODE (t) == FUNCTION_DECL)
            check_default_args (t);

            return t;
          }
        else if (DECL_MAIN_P (x))
          {
            /* A redeclaration of main, but not a duplicate of the
             previous one. 

             [basic.start.main]

               This function shall not be overloaded.  */
            cp_error_at ("invalid redeclaration of `%D'", t);
            cp_error ("as `%D'", x);
            /* We don't try to push this declaration since that
             causes a crash.  */
            return x;
          }
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL && ! DECL_FUNCTION_MEMBER_P (x))
      {
        t = push_overloaded_decl (x, 1);
        if (t != x || DECL_LANGUAGE (x) == lang_c)
          return t;
      }
      else if (DECL_FUNCTION_TEMPLATE_P (x) && DECL_NAMESPACE_SCOPE_P (x))
      return push_overloaded_decl (x, 0);

      /* If declaring a type as a typedef, copy the type (unless we're
       at line 0), and install this TYPE_DECL as the new type's typedef
       name.  See the extensive comment in ../c-decl.c (pushdecl). */
      if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL)
      {
        tree type = TREE_TYPE (x);
          if (DECL_SOURCE_LINE (x) == 0)
            {
            if (TYPE_NAME (type) == 0)
              TYPE_NAME (type) = x;
            }
          else if (type != error_mark_node && TYPE_NAME (type) != x)
            {
            push_obstacks (TYPE_OBSTACK (type), TYPE_OBSTACK (type));

            DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (x) = type;
              type = build_type_copy (type);
            TYPE_STUB_DECL (type) = TYPE_STUB_DECL (DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (x));
              TYPE_NAME (type) = x;
              TREE_TYPE (x) = type;

            pop_obstacks ();
            }

        if (type != error_mark_node
            && TYPE_NAME (type)
            && TYPE_IDENTIFIER (type))
            set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (DECL_NAME (x), type, b);
      }

      /* Multiple external decls of the same identifier ought to match.

       We get warnings about inline functions where they are defined.
       We get warnings about other functions from push_overloaded_decl.
       
       Avoid duplicate warnings where they are used.  */
      if (TREE_PUBLIC (x) && TREE_CODE (x) != FUNCTION_DECL)
      {
        tree decl;
        tree bindings = binding_for_name (name, current_namespace);

        if (BINDING_VALUE (bindings) != NULL_TREE
            && (DECL_EXTERNAL (BINDING_VALUE (bindings))
              || TREE_PUBLIC (BINDING_VALUE (bindings))))
          decl = BINDING_VALUE (bindings);
        else
          decl = NULL_TREE;

        if (decl
            /* If different sort of thing, we already gave an error.  */
            && TREE_CODE (decl) == TREE_CODE (x)
            && ! comptypes (TREE_TYPE (x), TREE_TYPE (decl), 1))
          {
            cp_pedwarn ("type mismatch with previous external decl", x);
            cp_pedwarn_at ("previous external decl of `%#D'", decl);
          }
      }

      /* This name is new in its binding level.
       Install the new declaration and return it.  */
      if (namespace_bindings_p ())
      {
        /* Install a global value.  */
        tree bindings = binding_for_name (name, current_namespace);

        /* If the first global decl has external linkage,
           warn if we later see static one.  */
        if (BINDING_VALUE (bindings) == NULL_TREE && TREE_PUBLIC (x))
          TREE_PUBLIC (name) = 1;

        /* Don't install an artificial TYPE_DECL if we already have
           another _DECL with that name.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (x) != TYPE_DECL
            || t == NULL_TREE
            || ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (x))
          {
            if (TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL)
            my_friendly_assert ((BINDING_VALUE (bindings) == NULL_TREE)
                                || BINDING_VALUE (bindings) == x, 378);
            BINDING_VALUE (bindings) = x;
          }

        /* Don't forget if the function was used via an implicit decl.  */
        if (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name)
            && TREE_USED (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name)))
          TREE_USED (x) = 1;

        /* Don't forget if its address was taken in that way.  */
        if (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name)
            && TREE_ADDRESSABLE (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name)))
          TREE_ADDRESSABLE (x) = 1;

        /* Warn about mismatches against previous implicit decl.  */
        if (IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (name) != NULL_TREE
            /* If this real decl matches the implicit, don't complain.  */
            && ! (TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL
                && TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (x)) == integer_type_node))
          cp_warning
            ("`%D' was previously implicitly declared to return `int'", x);

        /* If new decl is `static' and an `extern' was seen previously,
           warn about it.  */
        if (x != NULL_TREE && t != NULL_TREE && decls_match (x, t))
          warn_extern_redeclared_static (x, t);
      }
      else
      {
        /* Here to install a non-global value.  */
        tree oldlocal = IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (name);
        tree oldglobal = binding_for_name (name, current_namespace);

        /* Don't install an artificial TYPE_DECL if we already have
           another _DECL with that name.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (x) != TYPE_DECL
            || t == NULL_TREE
            || ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (x))
          set_identifier_local_value_with_scope (name, x, b);

        /* If this is a TYPE_DECL, push it into the type value slot.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL)
          set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (name, TREE_TYPE (x), b);

        /* Clear out any TYPE_DECL shadowed by a namespace so that
           we won't think this is a type.  The C struct hack doesn't
           go through namespaces.  */
        if (TREE_CODE (x) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
          set_identifier_type_value_with_scope (name, NULL_TREE, b);

        /* If this is an extern function declaration, see if we
           have a global definition or declaration for the function.  */
        if (oldlocal == NULL_TREE
            && DECL_EXTERNAL (x)
            && BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal) != NULL_TREE
            && TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL
            && TREE_CODE (BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal)) == FUNCTION_DECL)
          {
            /* We have one.  Their types must agree.  */
            if (decls_match (x, BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal)))
            /* OK */;
            else
            {
              cp_warning ("extern declaration of `%#D' doesn't match", x);
              cp_warning_at ("global declaration `%#D'", BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal));
            }
          }
        /* If we have a local external declaration,
           and no file-scope declaration has yet been seen,
           then if we later have a file-scope decl it must not be static.  */
        if (oldlocal == NULL_TREE
            && BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal) == NULL_TREE
            && DECL_EXTERNAL (x)
            && TREE_PUBLIC (x))
          {
            TREE_PUBLIC (name) = 1;
          }

        if (DECL_FROM_INLINE (x))
          /* Inline decls shadow nothing.  */;

        /* Warn if shadowing an argument at the top level of the body.  */
        else if (oldlocal != NULL_TREE && !DECL_EXTERNAL (x)
            && TREE_CODE (oldlocal) == PARM_DECL
            && TREE_CODE (x) != PARM_DECL)
          {
            /* Go to where the parms should be and see if we
             find them there.  */
            struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level->level_chain;

            if (cleanup_label)
            b = b->level_chain;

            /* ARM $8.3 */
            if (b->parm_flag == 1)
            cp_error ("declaration of `%#D' shadows a parameter", name);
          }
        else if (warn_shadow && oldlocal != NULL_TREE && b->is_for_scope
               && !DECL_DEAD_FOR_LOCAL (oldlocal))
          {
            warning ("variable `%s' shadows local",
                   IDENTIFIER_POINTER (name));
            cp_warning_at ("  this is the shadowed declaration", oldlocal);
          }          
        /* Maybe warn if shadowing something else.  */
        else if (warn_shadow && !DECL_EXTERNAL (x)
               /* No shadow warnings for internally generated vars.  */
               && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (x)
               /* No shadow warnings for vars made for inlining.  */
               && ! DECL_FROM_INLINE (x))
          {
            char *warnstring = NULL;

            if (oldlocal != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (oldlocal) == PARM_DECL)
            warnstring = "declaration of `%s' shadows a parameter";
            else if (IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name) != NULL_TREE
                   && current_class_ptr
                   && !TREE_STATIC (name))
            warnstring = "declaration of `%s' shadows a member of `this'";
            else if (oldlocal != NULL_TREE)
            warnstring = "declaration of `%s' shadows previous local";
            else if (BINDING_VALUE (oldglobal) != NULL_TREE)
            /* XXX shadow warnings in outer-more namespaces */
            warnstring = "declaration of `%s' shadows global declaration";

            if (warnstring)
            warning (warnstring, IDENTIFIER_POINTER (name));
          }
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (x) == FUNCTION_DECL)
      check_default_args (x);

      /* Keep count of variables in this level with incomplete type.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (x) == VAR_DECL
        && TREE_TYPE (x) != error_mark_node
        && ((TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (x)) == NULL_TREE
             && PROMOTES_TO_AGGR_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (x), ARRAY_TYPE))
            /* RTTI TD entries are created while defining the type_info.  */
            || (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (TREE_TYPE (x))
              && TYPE_BEING_DEFINED (TREE_TYPE (x)))))
      b->incomplete = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, x, b->incomplete);
    }

  /* Put decls on list in reverse order.
     We will reverse them later if necessary.  */
  TREE_CHAIN (x) = b->names;
  b->names = x;
  if (! (b != global_binding_level || TREE_PERMANENT (x)))
    my_friendly_abort (124);

  return x;
}

/* Same as pushdecl, but define X in binding-level LEVEL.  We rely on the
   caller to set DECL_CONTEXT properly.  */

static tree
pushdecl_with_scope (x, level)
     tree x;
     struct binding_level *level;
{
  register struct binding_level *b;
  tree function_decl = current_function_decl;

  current_function_decl = NULL_TREE;
  if (level->parm_flag == 2)
    {
      b = class_binding_level;
      class_binding_level = level;
      pushdecl_class_level (x);
      class_binding_level = b;
    }
  else
    {
      b = current_binding_level;
      current_binding_level = level;
      x = pushdecl (x);
      current_binding_level = b;
    }
  current_function_decl = function_decl;
  return x;
}

/* Like pushdecl, only it places X in the current namespace,
   if appropriate.  */

tree
pushdecl_namespace_level (x)
     tree x;
{
  register struct binding_level *b = inner_binding_level;
  register tree t;

  t = pushdecl_with_scope (x, NAMESPACE_LEVEL (current_namespace));

  /* Now, the type_shadowed stack may screw us.  Munge it so it does
     what we want.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL)
    {
      tree name = DECL_NAME (x);
      tree newval;
      tree *ptr = (tree *)0;
      for (; b != global_binding_level; b = b->level_chain)
        {
          tree shadowed = b->type_shadowed;
          for (; shadowed; shadowed = TREE_CHAIN (shadowed))
            if (TREE_PURPOSE (shadowed) == name)
              {
            ptr = &TREE_VALUE (shadowed);
            /* Can't break out of the loop here because sometimes
               a binding level will have duplicate bindings for
               PT names.  It's gross, but I haven't time to fix it.  */
              }
        }
      newval = TREE_TYPE (x);
      if (ptr == (tree *)0)
        {
          /* @@ This shouldn't be needed.  My test case "zstring.cc" trips
             up here if this is changed to an assertion.  --KR  */
        SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name, newval);
      }
      else
        {
        *ptr = newval;
        }
    }
  return t;
}

/* Like pushdecl, only it places X in GLOBAL_BINDING_LEVEL,
   if appropriate.  */

tree
pushdecl_top_level (x)
     tree x;
{
  tree cur_namespace = current_namespace;
  current_namespace = global_namespace;
  x = pushdecl_namespace_level (x);
  current_namespace = cur_namespace;
  return x;
}

/* Make the declaration of X appear in CLASS scope.  */

tree
pushdecl_class_level (x)
     tree x;
{
  /* Don't use DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME here!  Everything that looks in class
     scope looks for the pre-mangled name.  */
  register tree name = DECL_NAME (x);

  if (name)
    {
      if (TYPE_BEING_DEFINED (current_class_type))
      {
        /* A name N used in a class S shall refer to the same declaration
           in its context and when re-evaluated in the completed scope of S.

           Types, enums, and static vars are checked here; other
           members are checked in finish_struct.  */
        tree icv = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name);

        if (icv && icv != x
            && flag_optional_diags
            /* Don't complain about inherited names.  */
            && id_in_current_class (name)
            /* Or shadowed tags.  */
            && !(DECL_DECLARES_TYPE_P (icv)
               && DECL_CONTEXT (icv) == current_class_type))
          {
            cp_pedwarn ("declaration of identifier `%D' as `%#D'", name, x);
            cp_pedwarn_at ("conflicts with previous use in class as `%#D'",
                       icv);
          }
      }

      push_class_level_binding (name, x);
      if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL)
      {
        set_identifier_type_value (name, TREE_TYPE (x));
      }
    }
  return x;
}

#if 0
/* This function is used to push the mangled decls for nested types into
   the appropriate scope.  Previously pushdecl_top_level was used, but that
   is incorrect for members of local classes.  */

void
pushdecl_nonclass_level (x)
     tree x;
{
  struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;

  my_friendly_assert (b->parm_flag != 2, 180);

#if 0
  /* Get out of template binding levels */
  while (b->pseudo_global)
    b = b->level_chain;
#endif

  pushdecl_with_scope (x, b);
}
#endif

/* Make the declaration(s) of X appear in CLASS scope
   under the name NAME.  */

void
push_class_level_binding (name, x)
     tree name;
     tree x;
{
  /* The class_binding_level will be NULL if x is a template 
     parameter name in a member template.  */
  if (!class_binding_level)
    return;

  if (TREE_CODE (x) == TYPE_DECL && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (x)
      && purpose_member (name, class_binding_level->class_shadowed))
    return;

  maybe_push_cache_obstack ();
  class_binding_level->class_shadowed
      = tree_cons (name, IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name),
               class_binding_level->class_shadowed);
  pop_obstacks ();
  IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name) = x;
  obstack_ptr_grow (&decl_obstack, x);
}

/* Insert another USING_DECL into the current binding level,
   returning this declaration. If this is a redeclaration,
   do nothing and return NULL_TREE.  */

tree
push_using_decl (scope, name)
     tree scope;
     tree name;
{
  tree decl;
  
  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (scope) == NAMESPACE_DECL, 383);
  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (name) == IDENTIFIER_NODE, 384);
  for (decl = current_binding_level->usings; decl; decl = TREE_CHAIN (decl))
    if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) == scope && DECL_NAME (decl) == name)
      break;
  if (decl)
    return NULL_TREE;
  decl = build_lang_decl (USING_DECL, name, void_type_node);
  DECL_INITIAL (decl) = scope;
  TREE_CHAIN (decl) = current_binding_level->usings;
  current_binding_level->usings = decl;
  return decl;
}

/* Add namespace to using_directives. Return NULL_TREE if nothing was
   changed (i.e. there was already a directive), or the fresh
   TREE_LIST otherwise.  */

tree
push_using_directive (used)
     tree used;
{
  tree ud = current_binding_level->using_directives;
  tree iter, ancestor;
  
  /* Check if we already have this. */
  if (purpose_member (used, ud) != NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;

  /* Recursively add all namespaces used. */
  for (iter = DECL_NAMESPACE_USING (used); iter; iter = TREE_CHAIN (iter))
    push_using_directive (TREE_PURPOSE (iter));

  ancestor = namespace_ancestor (current_decl_namespace (), used);
  ud = current_binding_level->using_directives;
  ud = perm_tree_cons (used, ancestor, ud);
  current_binding_level->using_directives = ud;
  return ud;
}

/* DECL is a FUNCTION_DECL which may have other definitions already in
   place.  We get around this by making the value of the identifier point
   to a list of all the things that want to be referenced by that name.  It
   is then up to the users of that name to decide what to do with that
   list.

   DECL may also be a TEMPLATE_DECL, with a FUNCTION_DECL in its DECL_RESULT
   slot.  It is dealt with the same way.

   The value returned may be a previous declaration if we guessed wrong
   about what language DECL should belong to (C or C++).  Otherwise,
   it's always DECL (and never something that's not a _DECL).  */

static tree
push_overloaded_decl (decl, forgettable)
     tree decl;
     int forgettable;
{
  tree orig_name = DECL_NAME (decl);
  tree old;
  int doing_global = (namespace_bindings_p () || ! forgettable);

  if (doing_global)
    {
      old = namespace_binding (orig_name, DECL_CONTEXT (decl));
      if (old && TREE_CODE (old) == FUNCTION_DECL
        && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (old)
        && (DECL_BUILT_IN (old) || DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (old)))
      {
        if (duplicate_decls (decl, old))
          return old;
        old = NULL_TREE;
      }
    }
  else
    {
      old = IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (orig_name);

      if (! purpose_member (orig_name, current_binding_level->shadowed))
      {
        current_binding_level->shadowed
          = tree_cons (orig_name, old, current_binding_level->shadowed);
        old = NULL_TREE;
      }
    }

  if (old)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (old) == TYPE_DECL && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (old))
      {
        tree t = TREE_TYPE (old);
        if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (t) && warn_shadow
            && (! DECL_IN_SYSTEM_HEADER (decl)
              || ! DECL_IN_SYSTEM_HEADER (old)))
          cp_warning ("`%#D' hides constructor for `%#T'", decl, t);
        old = NULL_TREE;
      }
      else if (is_overloaded_fn (old))
        {
          tree tmp;
        
        for (tmp = old; tmp; tmp = OVL_NEXT (tmp))
          if (decl == OVL_CURRENT (tmp) 
            || duplicate_decls (decl, OVL_CURRENT (tmp)))
            return OVL_CURRENT (tmp);
      }
      else
      {
        cp_error_at ("previous non-function declaration `%#D'", old);
        cp_error ("conflicts with function declaration `%#D'", decl);
        return decl;
      }
    }

  if (old || TREE_CODE (decl) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
    {
      if (old && TREE_CODE (old) != OVERLOAD)
      old = ovl_cons (old, NULL_TREE);
      old = ovl_cons (decl, old);
    }
  else
    /* orig_name is not ambiguous.  */
    old = decl;

  if (doing_global)
    set_namespace_binding (orig_name, current_namespace, old);
  else
    IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (orig_name) = old;

  return decl;
}

/* Generate an implicit declaration for identifier FUNCTIONID
   as a function of type int ().  Print a warning if appropriate.  */

tree
implicitly_declare (functionid)
     tree functionid;
{
  register tree decl;
  int temp = allocation_temporary_p ();

  push_obstacks_nochange ();

  /* Save the decl permanently so we can warn if definition follows.
     In ANSI C, warn_implicit is usually false, so the saves little space.
     But in C++, it's usually true, hence the extra code.  */
  if (temp && (! warn_implicit || toplevel_bindings_p ()))
    end_temporary_allocation ();

  /* We used to reuse an old implicit decl here,
     but this loses with inline functions because it can clobber
     the saved decl chains.  */
  decl = build_lang_decl (FUNCTION_DECL, functionid, default_function_type);

  DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
  TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;

  /* ANSI standard says implicit declarations are in the innermost block.
     So we record the decl in the standard fashion.  */
  pushdecl (decl);
  rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, NULL_PTR, 0, 0);

  if (warn_implicit
      /* Only one warning per identifier.  */
      && IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (functionid) == NULL_TREE)
    {
      cp_pedwarn ("implicit declaration of function `%#D'", decl);
    }

  SET_IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (functionid, decl);

  pop_obstacks ();

  return decl;
}

/* Return zero if the declaration NEWDECL is valid
   when the declaration OLDDECL (assumed to be for the same name)
   has already been seen.
   Otherwise return an error message format string with a %s
   where the identifier should go.  */

static char *
redeclaration_error_message (newdecl, olddecl)
     tree newdecl, olddecl;
{
  if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TYPE_DECL)
    {
      /* Because C++ can put things into name space for free,
       constructs like "typedef struct foo { ... } foo"
       would look like an erroneous redeclaration.  */
      if (comptypes (TREE_TYPE (newdecl), TREE_TYPE (olddecl), 0))
      return 0;
      else
      return "redefinition of `%#D'";
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      /* If this is a pure function, its olddecl will actually be
       the original initialization to `0' (which we force to call
       abort()).  Don't complain about redefinition in this case.  */
      if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (olddecl) && DECL_ABSTRACT_VIRTUAL_P (olddecl))
      return 0;

      /* If both functions come from different namespaces, this is not
       a redeclaration - this is a conflict with a used function. */
      if (DECL_NAMESPACE_SCOPE_P (olddecl)
        && DECL_CONTEXT (olddecl) != DECL_CONTEXT (newdecl))
      return "`%D' conflicts with used function";

      /* We'll complain about linkage mismatches in
         warn_extern_redeclared_static.  */

      /* Defining the same name twice is no good.  */
      if (DECL_INITIAL (olddecl) != NULL_TREE
        && DECL_INITIAL (newdecl) != NULL_TREE)
      {
        if (DECL_NAME (olddecl) == NULL_TREE)
          return "`%#D' not declared in class";
        else
          return "redefinition of `%#D'";
      }
      return 0;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (newdecl) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
    {
      if ((TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == FUNCTION_DECL
         && DECL_INITIAL (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl))
         && DECL_INITIAL (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (olddecl)))
        || (TREE_CODE (DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (newdecl)) == TYPE_DECL
            && TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (newdecl))
            && TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (olddecl))))
      return "redefinition of `%#D'";
      return 0;
    }
  else if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    {
      /* Objects declared at top level:  */
      /* If at least one is a reference, it's ok.  */
      if (DECL_EXTERNAL (newdecl) || DECL_EXTERNAL (olddecl))
      return 0;
      /* Reject two definitions.  */
      return "redefinition of `%#D'";
    }
  else
    {
      /* Objects declared with block scope:  */
      /* Reject two definitions, and reject a definition
       together with an external reference.  */
      if (!(DECL_EXTERNAL (newdecl) && DECL_EXTERNAL (olddecl)))
      return "redeclaration of `%#D'";
      return 0;
    }
}

/* Get the LABEL_DECL corresponding to identifier ID as a label.
   Create one if none exists so far for the current function.
   This function is called for both label definitions and label references.  */

tree
lookup_label (id)
     tree id;
{
  register tree decl = IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (id);

  if (current_function_decl == NULL_TREE)
    {
      error ("label `%s' referenced outside of any function",
           IDENTIFIER_POINTER (id));
      return NULL_TREE;
    }

  if ((decl == NULL_TREE
      || DECL_SOURCE_LINE (decl) == 0)
      && (named_label_uses == NULL
        || named_label_uses->names_in_scope != current_binding_level->names
        || named_label_uses->label_decl != decl))
    {
      struct named_label_list *new_ent;
      new_ent
      = (struct named_label_list*)oballoc (sizeof (struct named_label_list));
      new_ent->label_decl = decl;
      new_ent->names_in_scope = current_binding_level->names;
      new_ent->binding_level = current_binding_level;
      new_ent->lineno_o_goto = lineno;
      new_ent->filename_o_goto = input_filename;
      new_ent->next = named_label_uses;
      named_label_uses = new_ent;
    }

  /* Use a label already defined or ref'd with this name.  */
  if (decl != NULL_TREE)
    {
      /* But not if it is inherited and wasn't declared to be inheritable.  */
      if (DECL_CONTEXT (decl) != current_function_decl
        && ! C_DECLARED_LABEL_FLAG (decl))
      return shadow_label (id);
      return decl;
    }

  decl = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, id, void_type_node);

  /* Make sure every label has an rtx.  */
  label_rtx (decl);

  /* A label not explicitly declared must be local to where it's ref'd.  */
  DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = current_function_decl;

  DECL_MODE (decl) = VOIDmode;

  /* Say where one reference is to the label,
     for the sake of the error if it is not defined.  */
  DECL_SOURCE_LINE (decl) = lineno;
  DECL_SOURCE_FILE (decl) = input_filename;

  SET_IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (id, decl);

  named_labels = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, decl, named_labels);
  named_label_uses->label_decl = decl;

  return decl;
}

/* Make a label named NAME in the current function,
   shadowing silently any that may be inherited from containing functions
   or containing scopes.

   Note that valid use, if the label being shadowed
   comes from another scope in the same function,
   requires calling declare_nonlocal_label right away.  */

tree
shadow_label (name)
     tree name;
{
  register tree decl = IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (name);

  if (decl != NULL_TREE)
    {
      shadowed_labels = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, decl, shadowed_labels);
      SET_IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (name, NULL_TREE);
    }

  return lookup_label (name);
}

/* Define a label, specifying the location in the source file.
   Return the LABEL_DECL node for the label, if the definition is valid.
   Otherwise return 0.  */

tree
define_label (filename, line, name)
     char *filename;
     int line;
     tree name;
{
  tree decl;

  if (minimal_parse_mode)
    {
      push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
      decl = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, name, void_type_node);
      pop_obstacks ();
      DECL_SOURCE_LINE (decl) = line;
      DECL_SOURCE_FILE (decl) = filename;
      add_tree (decl);
      return decl;
    }

  decl = lookup_label (name);

  /* After labels, make any new cleanups go into their
     own new (temporary) binding contour.  */
  current_binding_level->more_cleanups_ok = 0;

  /* If label with this name is known from an outer context, shadow it.  */
  if (decl != NULL_TREE && DECL_CONTEXT (decl) != current_function_decl)
    {
      shadowed_labels = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, decl, shadowed_labels);
      SET_IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (name, NULL_TREE);
      decl = lookup_label (name);
    }

  if (name == get_identifier ("wchar_t"))
    cp_pedwarn ("label named wchar_t");

  if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      cp_error ("duplicate label `%D'", decl);
      return 0;
    }
  else
    {
      struct named_label_list *uses, *prev;
      int identified = 0;

      /* Mark label as having been defined.  */
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = error_mark_node;
      /* Say where in the source.  */
      DECL_SOURCE_FILE (decl) = filename;
      DECL_SOURCE_LINE (decl) = line;

      prev = NULL;
      uses = named_label_uses;
      while (uses != NULL)
      if (uses->label_decl == decl)
        {
          struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;
          while (b)
            {
            tree new_decls = b->names;
            tree old_decls = (b == uses->binding_level)
                          ? uses->names_in_scope : NULL_TREE;
            while (new_decls != old_decls)
              {
                if (TREE_CODE (new_decls) == VAR_DECL
                  /* Don't complain about crossing initialization
                     of internal entities.  They can't be accessed,
                     and they should be cleaned up
                     by the time we get to the label.  */
                  && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (new_decls)
                  && ((DECL_INITIAL (new_decls) != NULL_TREE
                       && DECL_INITIAL (new_decls) != error_mark_node)
                      || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (TREE_TYPE (new_decls))))
                  {
                  if (! identified) 
                    {
                      cp_error ("jump to label `%D'", decl);
                      error_with_file_and_line (uses->filename_o_goto,
                                          uses->lineno_o_goto,
                                          "  from here");
                      identified = 1;
                  }
                  cp_error_at ("  crosses initialization of `%#D'",
                             new_decls);
                  }
                new_decls = TREE_CHAIN (new_decls);
              }
            if (b == uses->binding_level)
              break;
            b = b->level_chain;
            }

          if (prev != NULL)
            prev->next = uses->next;
          else
            named_label_uses = uses->next;

          uses = uses->next;
        }
      else
        {
          prev = uses;
          uses = uses->next;
        }
      current_function_return_value = NULL_TREE;
      return decl;
    }
}

struct cp_switch
{
  struct binding_level *level;
  struct cp_switch *next;
};

static struct cp_switch *switch_stack;

void
push_switch ()
{
  struct cp_switch *p
    = (struct cp_switch *) oballoc (sizeof (struct cp_switch));
  p->level = current_binding_level;
  p->next = switch_stack;
  switch_stack = p;
}

void
pop_switch ()
{
  switch_stack = switch_stack->next;
}

/* Same, but for CASE labels.  If DECL is NULL_TREE, it's the default.  */
/* XXX Note decl is never actually used. (bpk) */

void
define_case_label (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  tree cleanup = last_cleanup_this_contour ();
  struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;
  int identified = 0;

  if (cleanup)
    {
      static int explained = 0;
      cp_warning_at ("destructor needed for `%#D'", TREE_PURPOSE (cleanup));
      warning ("where case label appears here");
      if (!explained)
      {
        warning ("(enclose actions of previous case statements requiring");
        warning ("destructors in their own binding contours.)");
        explained = 1;
      }
    }

  for (; b && b != switch_stack->level; b = b->level_chain)
    {
      tree new_decls = b->names;
      for (; new_decls; new_decls = TREE_CHAIN (new_decls))
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (new_decls) == VAR_DECL
            /* Don't complain about crossing initialization
             of internal entities.  They can't be accessed,
             and they should be cleaned up
             by the time we get to the label.  */
            && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (new_decls)
            && ((DECL_INITIAL (new_decls) != NULL_TREE
               && DECL_INITIAL (new_decls) != error_mark_node)
              || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (TREE_TYPE (new_decls))))
          {
            if (! identified)
            error ("jump to case label");
            identified = 1;
            cp_error_at ("  crosses initialization of `%#D'",
                     new_decls);
          }
      }
    }

  /* After labels, make any new cleanups go into their
     own new (temporary) binding contour.  */

  current_binding_level->more_cleanups_ok = 0;
  current_function_return_value = NULL_TREE;
}

/* Return the list of declarations of the current level.
   Note that this list is in reverse order unless/until
   you nreverse it; and when you do nreverse it, you must
   store the result back using `storedecls' or you will lose.  */

tree
getdecls ()
{
  return current_binding_level->names;
}

/* Return the list of type-tags (for structs, etc) of the current level.  */

tree
gettags ()
{
  return current_binding_level->tags;
}

/* Store the list of declarations of the current level.
   This is done for the parameter declarations of a function being defined,
   after they are modified in the light of any missing parameters.  */

static void
storedecls (decls)
     tree decls;
{
  current_binding_level->names = decls;
}

/* Similarly, store the list of tags of the current level.  */

static void
storetags (tags)
     tree tags;
{
  current_binding_level->tags = tags;
}

/* Given NAME, an IDENTIFIER_NODE,
   return the structure (or union or enum) definition for that name.
   Searches binding levels from BINDING_LEVEL up to the global level.
   If THISLEVEL_ONLY is nonzero, searches only the specified context
   (but skips any tag-transparent contexts to find one that is
   meaningful for tags).
   FORM says which kind of type the caller wants;
   it is RECORD_TYPE or UNION_TYPE or ENUMERAL_TYPE.
   If the wrong kind of type is found, and it's not a template, an error is
   reported.  */

static tree
lookup_tag (form, name, binding_level, thislevel_only)
     enum tree_code form;
     tree name;
     struct binding_level *binding_level;
     int thislevel_only;
{
  register struct binding_level *level;

  for (level = binding_level; level; level = level->level_chain)
    {
      register tree tail;
      if (ANON_AGGRNAME_P (name))
      for (tail = level->tags; tail; tail = TREE_CHAIN (tail))
        {
          /* There's no need for error checking here, because
             anon names are unique throughout the compilation.  */
          if (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (TREE_VALUE (tail)) == name)
            return TREE_VALUE (tail);
        }
      else if (level->namespace_p)
      /* Do namespace lookup. */
      /* XXX: is this a real lookup, considering using-directives etc. ??? */
      for (tail = current_namespace; 1; tail = CP_DECL_CONTEXT (tail))
        {
          tree old = BINDING_TYPE (binding_for_name (name, tail));
          /* If it has an original type, it is a typedef, and we
             should not return it.  */
          if (old && DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (TYPE_NAME (old)))
            old = NULL_TREE;
          if (old && TREE_CODE (old) != form
            && !(form != ENUMERAL_TYPE && TREE_CODE (old) == TEMPLATE_DECL))
            {
            cp_error ("`%#D' redeclared as %C", old, form);
            return NULL_TREE;
            }
          if (old)
            return old;
          if (thislevel_only || tail == global_namespace)
            return NULL_TREE;
        }
      else
      for (tail = level->tags; tail; tail = TREE_CHAIN (tail))
        {
          if (TREE_PURPOSE (tail) == name)
            {
            enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (tail));
            /* Should tighten this up; it'll probably permit
               UNION_TYPE and a struct template, for example.  */
            if (code != form
                && !(form != ENUMERAL_TYPE && code == TEMPLATE_DECL))
              {
                /* Definition isn't the kind we were looking for.  */
                cp_error ("`%#D' redeclared as %C", TREE_VALUE (tail),
                        form);
                return NULL_TREE;
              }
            return TREE_VALUE (tail);
            }
        }
      if (thislevel_only && ! level->tag_transparent)
      {
        if (level->pseudo_global)
          {
            tree t = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name);
            if (t && DECL_CLASS_TEMPLATE_P (t))
            return TREE_TYPE (t);
            t = IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name);
            if (t && DECL_CLASS_TEMPLATE_P (t))
            return TREE_TYPE (t);
          }
        return NULL_TREE;
      }
      if (current_class_type && level->level_chain->namespace_p)
      {
        /* Try looking in this class's tags before heading into
           global binding level.  */
        tree context = current_class_type;
        while (context)
          {
            switch (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (context)))
            {
            tree these_tags;
            case 't':
                these_tags = CLASSTYPE_TAGS (context);
                if (ANON_AGGRNAME_P (name))
                  while (these_tags)
                  {
                    if (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (TREE_VALUE (these_tags))
                        == name)
                      return TREE_VALUE (tail);
                    these_tags = TREE_CHAIN (these_tags);
                  }
                else
                  while (these_tags)
                  {
                    if (TREE_PURPOSE (these_tags) == name)
                      {
                        if (TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (these_tags)) != form)
                        {
                          cp_error ("`%#D' redeclared as %C in class scope",
                                  TREE_VALUE (tail), form);
                          return NULL_TREE;
                        }
                        return TREE_VALUE (tail);
                      }
                    these_tags = TREE_CHAIN (these_tags);
                  }
                /* If this type is not yet complete, then don't
                   look at its context.  */
                if (TYPE_SIZE (context) == NULL_TREE)
                  goto no_context;
                /* Go to next enclosing type, if any.  */
                context = DECL_CONTEXT (TYPE_MAIN_DECL (context));
                break;
              case 'd':
                context = DECL_CONTEXT (context);
                break;
              default:
                my_friendly_abort (10);
            }
            continue;
            no_context:
            break;
          }
      }
    }
  return NULL_TREE;
}

#if 0
void
set_current_level_tags_transparency (tags_transparent)
     int tags_transparent;
{
  current_binding_level->tag_transparent = tags_transparent;
}
#endif

/* Given a type, find the tag that was defined for it and return the tag name.
   Otherwise return 0.  However, the value can never be 0
   in the cases in which this is used.

   C++: If NAME is non-zero, this is the new name to install.  This is
   done when replacing anonymous tags with real tag names.  */

static tree
lookup_tag_reverse (type, name)
     tree type;
     tree name;
{
  register struct binding_level *level;

  for (level = current_binding_level; level; level = level->level_chain)
    {
      register tree tail;
      for (tail = level->tags; tail; tail = TREE_CHAIN (tail))
      {
        if (TREE_VALUE (tail) == type)
          {
            if (name)
            TREE_PURPOSE (tail) = name;
            return TREE_PURPOSE (tail);
          }
      }
    }
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Lookup TYPE in CONTEXT (a chain of nested types or a FUNCTION_DECL).
   Return the type value, or NULL_TREE if not found.  */

static tree
lookup_nested_type (type, context)
     tree type;
     tree context;
{
  if (context == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;
  while (context)
    {
      switch (TREE_CODE (context))
      {
      case TYPE_DECL:
        {
          tree ctype = TREE_TYPE (context);
          tree match = value_member (type, CLASSTYPE_TAGS (ctype));
          if (match)
            return TREE_VALUE (match);
          context = DECL_CONTEXT (context);

          /* When we have a nested class whose member functions have
             local types (e.g., a set of enums), we'll arrive here
             with the DECL_CONTEXT as the actual RECORD_TYPE node for
             the enclosing class.  Instead, we want to make sure we
             come back in here with the TYPE_DECL, not the RECORD_TYPE.  */
          if (context && TREE_CODE (context) == RECORD_TYPE)
            context = TREE_CHAIN (context);
        }
        break;
      case FUNCTION_DECL:
        if (TYPE_NAME (type) && TYPE_IDENTIFIER (type))
          return lookup_name (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (type), 1);
        return NULL_TREE;
      default:
        my_friendly_abort (12);
      }
    }
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Look up NAME in the NAMESPACE.  */

tree
lookup_namespace_name (namespace, name)
     tree namespace, name;
{
  struct tree_binding _b;
  tree val;

  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (namespace) == NAMESPACE_DECL, 370);
  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (name) == IDENTIFIER_NODE, 373);
  
  val = binding_init (&_b);
  if (!qualified_lookup_using_namespace (name, namespace, val, 0))
    return error_mark_node;

  if (BINDING_VALUE (val))
    {
      val = BINDING_VALUE (val);

      /* If we have a single function from a using decl, pull it out.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (val) == OVERLOAD && ! really_overloaded_fn (val))
      val = OVL_FUNCTION (val);
      return val;
    }

  cp_error ("`%D' undeclared in namespace `%D'", name, namespace);
  return error_mark_node;
}

tree
make_typename_type (context, name)
     tree context, name;
{
  tree t, d;
  tree fullname;

  if (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (name)) == 't')
    name = TYPE_IDENTIFIER (name);
  else if (TREE_CODE (name) == TYPE_DECL)
    name = DECL_NAME (name);

  fullname = name;

  if (TREE_CODE (name) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
    {
      name = TREE_OPERAND (name, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (name) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
      name = TREE_OPERAND (fullname, 0) = DECL_NAME (name);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (name) != IDENTIFIER_NODE)
    my_friendly_abort (2000);

  if (! uses_template_parms (context)
      || currently_open_class (context))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (fullname) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
      {
        if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (context))
          t = lookup_field (context, name, 0, 0);
        else
          t = NULL_TREE;

        if (t == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (t) != TEMPLATE_DECL
            || TREE_CODE (DECL_RESULT (t)) != TYPE_DECL)
          {
            cp_error ("no class template named `%#T' in `%#T'",
                  name, context);
            return error_mark_node;
          }

        return lookup_template_class (t, TREE_OPERAND (fullname, 1),
                              NULL_TREE, context);
      }
      else
      {
        if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (context))
          t = lookup_field (context, name, 0, 1);
        else
          t = NULL_TREE;

        if (t == NULL_TREE)
          {
            cp_error ("no type named `%#T' in `%#T'", name, context);
            return error_mark_node;
          }

        return TREE_TYPE (t);
      }
    }

  if (processing_template_decl)
    push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
  t = make_lang_type (TYPENAME_TYPE);
  TYPENAME_TYPE_FULLNAME (t) = fullname;
  d = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, name, t);
  if (processing_template_decl)
    pop_obstacks ();

  TYPE_CONTEXT (t) = FROB_CONTEXT (context);
  TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (d)) = d;
  TYPE_STUB_DECL (TREE_TYPE (d)) = d;
  DECL_CONTEXT (d) = FROB_CONTEXT (context);
  CLASSTYPE_GOT_SEMICOLON (t) = 1;

  return t;
}

/* Select the right _DECL from multiple choices. */

static tree
select_decl (binding, flags)
     tree binding;
     int flags;
{
  tree val;
  val = BINDING_VALUE (binding);
  if (LOOKUP_NAMESPACES_ONLY (flags))
    {
      /* We are not interested in types. */
      if (val && TREE_CODE (val) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
        return val;
      return NULL_TREE;
    }
  
  /* If we could have a type and
     we have nothing or we need a type and have none.  */
  if (BINDING_TYPE (binding)
      && (!val || ((flags & LOOKUP_PREFER_TYPES)
                   && TREE_CODE (val) != TYPE_DECL)))
    val = TYPE_STUB_DECL (BINDING_TYPE (binding));
  /* Don't return non-types if we really prefer types. */
  else if (val && LOOKUP_TYPES_ONLY (flags)  && TREE_CODE (val) != TYPE_DECL
         && (!looking_for_template || TREE_CODE (val) != TEMPLATE_DECL))
    val = NULL_TREE;

  return val;
}

/* Unscoped lookup of a global, iterate over namespaces, considering
   using namespace statements. */

static tree
unqualified_namespace_lookup (name, flags)
     tree name;
     int flags;
{
  struct tree_binding _binding;
  tree b = binding_init (&_binding);
  tree initial = current_decl_namespace();
  tree scope = initial;
  tree siter;
  struct binding_level *level;
  tree val = NULL_TREE;

  while (!val)
    {
      val = binding_for_name (name, scope);

      /* Initialize binding for this context. */
      BINDING_VALUE (b) = BINDING_VALUE (val);
      BINDING_TYPE (b) = BINDING_TYPE (val);

      /* Add all _DECLs seen through local using-directives. */
      for (level = current_binding_level; 
         !level->namespace_p;
         level = level->level_chain)
      if (!lookup_using_namespace (name, b, level->using_directives,
                                     scope, flags))
        /* Give up because of error. */
        return NULL_TREE;

      /* Add all _DECLs seen through global using-directives. */
      /* XXX local and global using lists should work equally. */
      siter = initial;
      while (1)
      {
        if (!lookup_using_namespace (name, b, DECL_NAMESPACE_USING (siter), 
                               scope, flags))
          /* Give up because of error. */
          return NULL_TREE;
        if (siter == scope) break;
        siter = CP_DECL_CONTEXT (siter);
      }

      val = select_decl (b, flags);
      if (scope == global_namespace)
      break;
      scope = CP_DECL_CONTEXT (scope);
    }
  return val;
}

/* Combine prefer_type and namespaces_only into flags.  */

static int
lookup_flags (prefer_type, namespaces_only)
  int prefer_type, namespaces_only;
{
  if (namespaces_only)
    return LOOKUP_PREFER_NAMESPACES;
  if (prefer_type > 1)
    return LOOKUP_PREFER_TYPES;
  if (prefer_type > 0)
    return LOOKUP_PREFER_BOTH;
  return 0;
}

/* Given a lookup that returned VAL, use FLAGS to decide if we want to
   ignore it or not.  Subroutine of lookup_name_real.  */

static tree
qualify_lookup (val, flags)
     tree val;
     int flags;
{
  if (val == NULL_TREE)
    return val;
  if ((flags & LOOKUP_PREFER_NAMESPACES) && TREE_CODE (val) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
    return val;
  if ((flags & LOOKUP_PREFER_TYPES)
      && (TREE_CODE (val) == TYPE_DECL
        || ((flags & LOOKUP_TEMPLATES_EXPECTED)
            && DECL_CLASS_TEMPLATE_P (val))))
    return val;
  if (flags & (LOOKUP_PREFER_NAMESPACES | LOOKUP_PREFER_TYPES))
    return NULL_TREE;
  return val;
}

/* Look up NAME in the current binding level and its superiors in the
   namespace of variables, functions and typedefs.  Return a ..._DECL
   node of some kind representing its definition if there is only one
   such declaration, or return a TREE_LIST with all the overloaded
   definitions if there are many, or return 0 if it is undefined.

   If PREFER_TYPE is > 0, we prefer TYPE_DECLs or namespaces.
   If PREFER_TYPE is > 1, we reject non-type decls (e.g. namespaces).
   If PREFER_TYPE is -2, we're being called from yylex(). (UGLY)
   Otherwise we prefer non-TYPE_DECLs.  

   If NONCLASS is non-zero, we don't look for the NAME in class scope,
   using IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE.  */

static tree
lookup_name_real (name, prefer_type, nonclass, namespaces_only)
     tree name;
     int prefer_type, nonclass, namespaces_only;
{
  register tree val;
  int yylex = 0;
  tree from_obj = NULL_TREE;
  tree locval, classval;
  int flags;

  /* Hack: copy flag set by parser, if set. */
  if (only_namespace_names)
    namespaces_only = 1;

  if (prefer_type == -2)
    {
      extern int looking_for_typename;
      tree type = NULL_TREE;

      yylex = 1;
      prefer_type = looking_for_typename;

      flags = lookup_flags (prefer_type, namespaces_only);
      /* During parsing, we need to complain. */
      flags |= LOOKUP_COMPLAIN;
      /* If the next thing is '<', class templates are types. */
      if (looking_for_template)
        flags |= LOOKUP_TEMPLATES_EXPECTED;

      /* std:: becomes :: for now.  */
      if (got_scope == std_node)
      got_scope = void_type_node;

      if (got_scope)
      type = got_scope;
      else if (got_object != error_mark_node)
      type = got_object;
      
      if (type)
      {
        if (type == error_mark_node)
          return error_mark_node;
        if (TREE_CODE (type) == TYPENAME_TYPE && TREE_TYPE (type))
          type = TREE_TYPE (type);

        if (TYPE_P (type))
          type = complete_type (type);

        if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE)
          type = global_namespace;
        if (TREE_CODE (type) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
          {
            struct tree_binding b;
            val = binding_init (&b);
            if (!qualified_lookup_using_namespace (name, type, val, flags))
            return NULL_TREE;
            val = select_decl (val, flags);
          }
        else if (! IS_AGGR_TYPE (type)
               || TREE_CODE (type) == TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
               || TREE_CODE (type) == TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM
               || TREE_CODE (type) == TYPENAME_TYPE)
          /* Someone else will give an error about this if needed.  */
          val = NULL_TREE;
        else if (TYPE_BEING_DEFINED (type))
          {
            val = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name);
            if (val && DECL_CONTEXT (val) != type)
            {
              struct binding_level *b = class_binding_level;
              for (val = NULL_TREE; b; b = b->level_chain)
                {
                  tree t = purpose_member (name, b->class_shadowed);
                  if (t && TREE_VALUE (t)
                    && DECL_CONTEXT (TREE_VALUE (t)) == type)
                  {
                    val = TREE_VALUE (t);
                    break;
                  }
                }
            }
            if (val == NULL_TREE)
            val = lookup_field (type, name, 0, 1);
          }
        else if (type == current_class_type)
          val = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name);
        else
          val = lookup_member (type, name, 0, prefer_type);
      }
      else
      val = NULL_TREE;

      if (got_scope)
      goto done;
      else if (got_object && val)
      from_obj = val;
    }
  else
    flags = lookup_flags (prefer_type, namespaces_only);

  locval = classval = NULL_TREE;

  if (! namespace_bindings_p ())
    locval = qualify_lookup (IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (name), flags);

  /* In C++ class fields are between local and global scope,
     just before the global scope.  */
  if (current_class_type && ! nonclass)
    {
      classval = IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (name);
      if (classval == NULL_TREE && TYPE_BEING_DEFINED (current_class_type))
      /* Try to find values from base classes if we are presently
         defining a type.  We are presently only interested in
         TYPE_DECLs.  */
      classval = lookup_field (current_class_type, name, 0, 1);

      /* Add implicit 'typename' to types from template bases.  lookup_field
         will do this for us.  If classval is actually from an enclosing
         scope, lookup_nested_field will get it for us.  */
      if (processing_template_decl
        && classval && TREE_CODE (classval) == TYPE_DECL
        && ! currently_open_class (DECL_CONTEXT (classval))
        && uses_template_parms (current_class_type)
        && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (classval))
      classval = lookup_field (current_class_type, name, 0, 1);

      /* yylex() calls this with -2, since we should never start digging for
       the nested name at the point where we haven't even, for example,
       created the COMPONENT_REF or anything like that.  */
      if (classval == NULL_TREE)
      classval = lookup_nested_field (name, ! yylex);

      classval = qualify_lookup (classval, flags);
    }

  if (locval && classval)
    {
      if (current_scope () == current_function_decl
        && ! hack_decl_function_context (current_function_decl))
      /* Not in a nested function.  */
      val = locval;
      else
      {
        /* This is incredibly horrible.  The whole concept of
           IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE / IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE /
           IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE needs to be scrapped for local
           classes.  */
        tree lctx = hack_decl_function_context (locval);
        tree cctx = hack_decl_function_context (classval);

        if (lctx == current_scope ())
          val = locval;
        else if (lctx == cctx)
          val = classval;
        else
          /* I don't know which is right; let's just guess for now.  */
          val = locval;
      }
    }
  else if (locval)
    val = locval;
  else if (classval)
    val = classval;
  else
    val = unqualified_namespace_lookup (name, flags);

 done:
  if (val)
    {
      /* This should only warn about types used in qualified-ids.  */
      if (from_obj && from_obj != val)
      {
        if (looking_for_typename && TREE_CODE (from_obj) == TYPE_DECL
            && TREE_CODE (val) == TYPE_DECL
            && TREE_TYPE (from_obj) != TREE_TYPE (val))
          {
            cp_pedwarn ("lookup of `%D' in the scope of `%#T' (`%#T')",
                    name, got_object, TREE_TYPE (from_obj));
            cp_pedwarn ("  does not match lookup in the current scope (`%#T')",
                    TREE_TYPE (val));
          }

        /* We don't change val to from_obj if got_object depends on
           template parms because that breaks implicit typename for
           destructor calls.  */
        if (! uses_template_parms (got_object))
          val = from_obj;
      }

      if ((TREE_CODE (val) == TEMPLATE_DECL && looking_for_template)
        || TREE_CODE (val) == TYPE_DECL || prefer_type <= 0)
      ;
      /* Caller wants a class-or-namespace-name. */
      else if (prefer_type == 1 && TREE_CODE (val) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
      ;
      else if (IDENTIFIER_HAS_TYPE_VALUE (name))
      val = TYPE_MAIN_DECL (IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name));
      else if (TREE_TYPE (val) == error_mark_node)
      val = error_mark_node;

      /* If we have a single function from a using decl, pull it out.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (val) == OVERLOAD && ! really_overloaded_fn (val))
      val = OVL_FUNCTION (val);
    }
  else if (from_obj)
    val = from_obj;

  return val;
}

tree
lookup_name_nonclass (name)
     tree name;
{
  return lookup_name_real (name, 0, 1, 0);
}

tree
lookup_function_nonclass (name, args)
     tree name;
     tree args;
{
  return lookup_arg_dependent (name, lookup_name_nonclass (name), args);
}

tree
lookup_name_namespace_only (name)
     tree name;
{
  /* type-or-namespace, nonclass, namespace_only */
  return lookup_name_real (name, 1, 1, 1);
}

tree
lookup_name (name, prefer_type)
     tree name;
     int prefer_type;
{
  return lookup_name_real (name, prefer_type, 0, 0);
}

/* Similar to `lookup_name' but look only at current binding level.  */

tree
lookup_name_current_level (name)
     tree name;
{
  register tree t = NULL_TREE;

  if (current_binding_level->namespace_p)
    {
      t =  IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name);

      /* extern "C" function() */
      if (t != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (t) == TREE_LIST)
      t = TREE_VALUE (t);
    }
  else if (IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (name) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;
      while (1)
      {
        if (purpose_member (name, b->shadowed))
          return IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (name);
        if (b->keep == 2)
          b = b->level_chain;
        else
          break;
      }
    }

  return t;
}

/* Like lookup_name_current_level, but for types.  */

tree
lookup_type_current_level (name)
     tree name;
{
  register tree t = NULL_TREE;

  my_friendly_assert (! current_binding_level->namespace_p, 980716);

  if (REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name) != NULL_TREE
      && REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name) != global_type_node)
    {
      struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;
      while (1)
      {
        if (purpose_member (name, b->type_shadowed))
          return REAL_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name);
        if (b->keep == 2)
          b = b->level_chain;
        else
          break;
      }
    }

  return t;
}

void
begin_only_namespace_names ()
{
  only_namespace_names = 1;
}

void
end_only_namespace_names ()
{
  only_namespace_names = 0;
}

/* Arrange for the user to get a source line number, even when the
   compiler is going down in flames, so that she at least has a
   chance of working around problems in the compiler.  We used to
   call error(), but that let the segmentation fault continue
   through; now, it's much more passive by asking them to send the
   maintainers mail about the problem.  */

static void
signal_catch (sig)
     int sig ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED;
{
  signal (SIGSEGV, SIG_DFL);
#ifdef SIGIOT
  signal (SIGIOT, SIG_DFL);
#endif
#ifdef SIGILL
  signal (SIGILL, SIG_DFL);
#endif
#ifdef SIGABRT
  signal (SIGABRT, SIG_DFL);
#endif
#ifdef SIGBUS
  signal (SIGBUS, SIG_DFL);
#endif
  my_friendly_abort (0);
}

#if 0
/* Unused -- brendan 970107 */
/* Array for holding types considered "built-in".  These types
   are output in the module in which `main' is defined.  */
static tree *builtin_type_tdescs_arr;
static int builtin_type_tdescs_len, builtin_type_tdescs_max;
#endif

/* Push the declarations of builtin types into the namespace.
   RID_INDEX, if < RID_MAX is the index of the builtin type
   in the array RID_POINTERS.  NAME is the name used when looking
   up the builtin type.  TYPE is the _TYPE node for the builtin type.  */

static void
record_builtin_type (rid_index, name, type)
     enum rid rid_index;
     char *name;
     tree type;
{
  tree rname = NULL_TREE, tname = NULL_TREE;
  tree tdecl = NULL_TREE;

  if ((int) rid_index < (int) RID_MAX)
    rname = ridpointers[(int) rid_index];
  if (name)
    tname = get_identifier (name);

  TYPE_BUILT_IN (type) = 1;
  
  if (tname)
    {
      tdecl = pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, tname, type));
      set_identifier_type_value (tname, NULL_TREE);
      if ((int) rid_index < (int) RID_MAX)
      /* Built-in types live in the global namespace. */
      SET_IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (tname, tdecl);
    }
  if (rname != NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (tname != NULL_TREE)
      {
        set_identifier_type_value (rname, NULL_TREE);
        SET_IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (rname, tdecl);
      }
      else
      {
        tdecl = pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, rname, type));
        set_identifier_type_value (rname, NULL_TREE);
      }
    }
}

/* Record one of the standard Java types.
 * Declare it as having the given NAME.
 * If SIZE > 0, it is the size of one of the integral types;
 * otherwise it is the negative of the size of one of the other types.  */

static tree
record_builtin_java_type (name, size)
     char *name;
     int size;
{
  tree type, decl;
  if (size > 0)
    type = make_signed_type (size);
  else if (size > -32)
    { /* "__java_char" or ""__java_boolean". */
      type = make_unsigned_type (-size);
      /*if (size == -1) TREE_SET_CODE (type, BOOLEAN_TYPE);*/
    }
  else
    { /* "__java_float" or ""__java_double". */
      type = make_node (REAL_TYPE);
      TYPE_PRECISION (type) = - size;
      layout_type (type);
    }
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, name, type);
  decl = TYPE_NAME (type);
  DECL_IGNORED_P (decl) = 1;
  TYPE_FOR_JAVA (type) = 1;
  return type;
}

/* Push a type into the namespace so that the back-ends ignore it. */

static void
record_unknown_type (type, name)
     tree type;
     char *name;
{
  tree decl = pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier (name), type));
  /* Make sure the "unknown type" typedecl gets ignored for debug info.  */
  DECL_IGNORED_P (decl) = 1;
  TYPE_DECL_SUPPRESS_DEBUG (decl) = 1;
  TYPE_SIZE (type) = TYPE_SIZE (void_type_node);
  TYPE_ALIGN (type) = 1;
  TYPE_MODE (type) = TYPE_MODE (void_type_node);
} 

/* Push overloaded decl, in global scope, with one argument so it
   can be used as a callback from define_function.  */

static void
push_overloaded_decl_1 (x)
     tree x;
{
  push_overloaded_decl (x, 0);
}

#ifdef __GNUC__
__inline
#endif
tree
auto_function (name, type, code)
     tree name, type;
     enum built_in_function code;
{
  return define_function
    (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (name), type, code, push_overloaded_decl_1,
     IDENTIFIER_POINTER (build_decl_overload (name, TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type),
                                    0)));
}

/* Create the predefined scalar types of C,
   and some nodes representing standard constants (0, 1, (void *)0).
   Initialize the global binding level.
   Make definitions for built-in primitive functions.  */

void
init_decl_processing ()
{
  register tree endlink, int_endlink, double_endlink, unsigned_endlink;
  tree fields[20];
  /* Data type of memcpy.  */
  tree memcpy_ftype, strlen_ftype;
  int wchar_type_size;
  tree temp;
  tree array_domain_type;
  extern int flag_strict_prototype;
  tree vb_off_identifier = NULL_TREE;
  /* Function type `char *(char *, char *)' and similar ones */
  tree string_ftype_ptr_ptr, int_ftype_string_string;
  tree sizetype_endlink;
  tree ptr_ftype, ptr_ftype_unsigned, ptr_ftype_sizetype;
  tree void_ftype, void_ftype_int, void_ftype_ptr, ptr_ftype_void;

  /* Have to make these distinct before we try using them.  */
  lang_name_cplusplus = get_identifier ("C++");
  lang_name_c = get_identifier ("C");
  lang_name_java = get_identifier ("Java");

  /* Enter the global namespace. */
  my_friendly_assert (global_namespace == NULL_TREE, 375);
  my_friendly_assert (current_lang_name == NULL_TREE, 375);
  current_lang_name = lang_name_cplusplus;
  push_namespace (get_identifier ("::"));
  global_namespace = current_namespace;
  current_lang_name = NULL_TREE;

  if (flag_strict_prototype == 2)
    {
      if (pedantic)
      strict_prototypes_lang_c = strict_prototypes_lang_cplusplus;
    }
  else
    strict_prototypes_lang_c = flag_strict_prototype;

  /* Initially, C.  */
  current_lang_name = lang_name_c;

  current_function_decl = NULL_TREE;
  named_labels = NULL_TREE;
  named_label_uses = NULL;
  current_binding_level = NULL_BINDING_LEVEL;
  free_binding_level = NULL_BINDING_LEVEL;

#ifndef __CYGWIN32__
  /* Because most segmentation signals can be traced back into user
     code, catch them and at least give the user a chance of working
     around compiler bugs.  */
  signal (SIGSEGV, signal_catch);

  /* We will also catch aborts in the back-end through signal_catch and
     give the user a chance to see where the error might be, and to defeat
     aborts in the back-end when there have been errors previously in their
     code.  */
#ifdef SIGIOT
  signal (SIGIOT, signal_catch);
#endif
#ifdef SIGILL
  signal (SIGILL, signal_catch);
#endif
#ifdef SIGABRT
  signal (SIGABRT, signal_catch);
#endif
#ifdef SIGBUS
  signal (SIGBUS, signal_catch);
#endif
#else /* ndef __CYGWIN32__ */
  /* Cygwin32 cannot handle catching signals other than
     SIGABRT yet.  We hope this will cease to be the case soon. */
#ifdef SIGABRT
  signal (SIGABRT, signal_catch);
#endif
#endif /* ndef __CYGWIN32__ */

  gcc_obstack_init (&decl_obstack);

  /* Must lay these out before anything else gets laid out.  */
  error_mark_node = make_node (ERROR_MARK);
  TREE_PERMANENT (error_mark_node) = 1;
  TREE_TYPE (error_mark_node) = error_mark_node;
  error_mark_list = build_tree_list (error_mark_node, error_mark_node);
  TREE_TYPE (error_mark_list) = error_mark_node;

  /* Make the binding_level structure for global names.  */
  pushlevel (0);
  global_binding_level = current_binding_level;
  /* The global level is the namespace level of ::.  */
  NAMESPACE_LEVEL (global_namespace) = global_binding_level;
  declare_namespace_level ();

  this_identifier = get_identifier (THIS_NAME);
  in_charge_identifier = get_identifier (IN_CHARGE_NAME);
  ctor_identifier = get_identifier (CTOR_NAME);
  dtor_identifier = get_identifier (DTOR_NAME);
  pfn_identifier = get_identifier (VTABLE_PFN_NAME);
  index_identifier = get_identifier (VTABLE_INDEX_NAME);
  delta_identifier = get_identifier (VTABLE_DELTA_NAME);
  delta2_identifier = get_identifier (VTABLE_DELTA2_NAME);
  pfn_or_delta2_identifier = get_identifier ("__pfn_or_delta2");
  if (flag_handle_signatures)
    {
      tag_identifier = get_identifier (SIGTABLE_TAG_NAME);
      vb_off_identifier = get_identifier (SIGTABLE_VB_OFF_NAME);
      vt_off_identifier = get_identifier (SIGTABLE_VT_OFF_NAME);
    }

  /* Define `int' and `char' first so that dbx will output them first.  */

  integer_type_node = make_signed_type (INT_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_INT, NULL_PTR, integer_type_node);

  /* Define `char', which is like either `signed char' or `unsigned char'
     but not the same as either.  */

  char_type_node
    = (flag_signed_char
       ? make_signed_type (CHAR_TYPE_SIZE)
       : make_unsigned_type (CHAR_TYPE_SIZE));
  record_builtin_type (RID_CHAR, "char", char_type_node);

  long_integer_type_node = make_signed_type (LONG_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_LONG, "long int", long_integer_type_node);

  unsigned_type_node = make_unsigned_type (INT_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_UNSIGNED, "unsigned int", unsigned_type_node);

  long_unsigned_type_node = make_unsigned_type (LONG_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "long unsigned int", long_unsigned_type_node);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "unsigned long", long_unsigned_type_node);

  long_long_integer_type_node = make_signed_type (LONG_LONG_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "long long int", long_long_integer_type_node);

  long_long_unsigned_type_node = make_unsigned_type (LONG_LONG_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "long long unsigned int",
                   long_long_unsigned_type_node);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "long long unsigned",
                   long_long_unsigned_type_node);

  short_integer_type_node = make_signed_type (SHORT_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_SHORT, "short int", short_integer_type_node);
  short_unsigned_type_node = make_unsigned_type (SHORT_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "short unsigned int", short_unsigned_type_node);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "unsigned short", short_unsigned_type_node);

  /* `unsigned long' is the standard type for sizeof.
     Note that stddef.h uses `unsigned long',
     and this must agree, even if long and int are the same size.  */
  set_sizetype
    (TREE_TYPE (IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (get_identifier (SIZE_TYPE))));

  ptrdiff_type_node
    = TREE_TYPE (IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (get_identifier (PTRDIFF_TYPE)));

  /* Define both `signed char' and `unsigned char'.  */
  signed_char_type_node = make_signed_type (CHAR_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "signed char", signed_char_type_node);
  unsigned_char_type_node = make_unsigned_type (CHAR_TYPE_SIZE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "unsigned char", unsigned_char_type_node);

  /* These are types that type_for_size and type_for_mode use.  */
  intQI_type_node = make_signed_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (QImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, intQI_type_node));
  intHI_type_node = make_signed_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (HImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, intHI_type_node));
  intSI_type_node = make_signed_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (SImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, intSI_type_node));
  intDI_type_node = make_signed_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (DImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, intDI_type_node));
  intTI_type_node = make_signed_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (TImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, intTI_type_node));
  unsigned_intQI_type_node = make_unsigned_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (QImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, unsigned_intQI_type_node));
  unsigned_intHI_type_node = make_unsigned_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (HImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, unsigned_intHI_type_node));
  unsigned_intSI_type_node = make_unsigned_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (SImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, unsigned_intSI_type_node));
  unsigned_intDI_type_node = make_unsigned_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (DImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, unsigned_intDI_type_node));
  unsigned_intTI_type_node = make_unsigned_type (GET_MODE_BITSIZE (TImode));
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, unsigned_intTI_type_node));

  float_type_node = make_node (REAL_TYPE);
  TYPE_PRECISION (float_type_node) = FLOAT_TYPE_SIZE;
  record_builtin_type (RID_FLOAT, NULL_PTR, float_type_node);
  layout_type (float_type_node);

  double_type_node = make_node (REAL_TYPE);
  if (flag_short_double)
    TYPE_PRECISION (double_type_node) = FLOAT_TYPE_SIZE;
  else
    TYPE_PRECISION (double_type_node) = DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE;
  record_builtin_type (RID_DOUBLE, NULL_PTR, double_type_node);
  layout_type (double_type_node);

  long_double_type_node = make_node (REAL_TYPE);
  TYPE_PRECISION (long_double_type_node) = LONG_DOUBLE_TYPE_SIZE;
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, "long double", long_double_type_node);
  layout_type (long_double_type_node);

  complex_integer_type_node = make_node (COMPLEX_TYPE);
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier ("complex int"),
                  complex_integer_type_node));
  TREE_TYPE (complex_integer_type_node) = integer_type_node;
  layout_type (complex_integer_type_node);

  complex_float_type_node = make_node (COMPLEX_TYPE);
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier ("complex float"),
                  complex_float_type_node));
  TREE_TYPE (complex_float_type_node) = float_type_node;
  layout_type (complex_float_type_node);

  complex_double_type_node = make_node (COMPLEX_TYPE);
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier ("complex double"),
                  complex_double_type_node));
  TREE_TYPE (complex_double_type_node) = double_type_node;
  layout_type (complex_double_type_node);

  complex_long_double_type_node = make_node (COMPLEX_TYPE);
  pushdecl (build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier ("complex long double"),
                  complex_long_double_type_node));
  TREE_TYPE (complex_long_double_type_node) = long_double_type_node;
  layout_type (complex_long_double_type_node);

  java_byte_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_byte", 8);
  java_short_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_short", 16);
  java_int_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_int", 32);
  java_long_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_long", 64);
  java_float_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_float", -32);
  java_double_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_double", -64);
  java_char_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_char", -16);
  java_boolean_type_node = record_builtin_java_type ("__java_boolean", -1);

  integer_zero_node = build_int_2 (0, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (integer_zero_node) = integer_type_node;
  integer_one_node = build_int_2 (1, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (integer_one_node) = integer_type_node;
  integer_two_node = build_int_2 (2, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (integer_two_node) = integer_type_node;
  integer_three_node = build_int_2 (3, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (integer_three_node) = integer_type_node;

  boolean_type_node = make_unsigned_type (BOOL_TYPE_SIZE);
  TREE_SET_CODE (boolean_type_node, BOOLEAN_TYPE);
  TYPE_MAX_VALUE (boolean_type_node) = build_int_2 (1, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (boolean_type_node)) = boolean_type_node;
  TYPE_PRECISION (boolean_type_node) = 1;
  record_builtin_type (RID_BOOL, "bool", boolean_type_node);
  boolean_false_node = build_int_2 (0, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (boolean_false_node) = boolean_type_node;
  boolean_true_node = build_int_2 (1, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (boolean_true_node) = boolean_type_node;

  /* These are needed by stor-layout.c.  */
  size_zero_node = size_int (0);
  size_one_node = size_int (1);

  signed_size_zero_node = build_int_2 (0, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (signed_size_zero_node) = make_signed_type (TYPE_PRECISION (sizetype));

  void_type_node = make_node (VOID_TYPE);
  record_builtin_type (RID_VOID, NULL_PTR, void_type_node);
  layout_type (void_type_node); /* Uses integer_zero_node.  */
  void_list_node = build_tree_list (NULL_TREE, void_type_node);
  TREE_PARMLIST (void_list_node) = 1;

  null_pointer_node = build_int_2 (0, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (null_pointer_node) = build_pointer_type (void_type_node);
  layout_type (TREE_TYPE (null_pointer_node));
     
  /* Used for expressions that do nothing, but are not errors.  */
  void_zero_node = build_int_2 (0, 0);
  TREE_TYPE (void_zero_node) = void_type_node;

  string_type_node = build_pointer_type (char_type_node);
  const_string_type_node
    = build_pointer_type (build_type_variant (char_type_node, 1, 0));
#if 0
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, NULL_PTR, string_type_node);
#endif

  /* Make a type to be the domain of a few array types
     whose domains don't really matter.
     200 is small enough that it always fits in size_t
     and large enough that it can hold most function names for the
     initializations of __FUNCTION__ and __PRETTY_FUNCTION__.  */
  array_domain_type = build_index_type (build_int_2 (200, 0));

  /* Make a type for arrays of characters.
     With luck nothing will ever really depend on the length of this
     array type.  */
  char_array_type_node
    = build_array_type (char_type_node, array_domain_type);
  /* Likewise for arrays of ints.  */
  int_array_type_node
    = build_array_type (integer_type_node, array_domain_type);

  /* This is just some anonymous class type.  Nobody should ever
     need to look inside this envelope.  */
  class_star_type_node = build_pointer_type (make_lang_type (RECORD_TYPE));

  default_function_type
    = build_function_type (integer_type_node, NULL_TREE);

  ptr_type_node = build_pointer_type (void_type_node);
  const_ptr_type_node
    = build_pointer_type (build_type_variant (void_type_node, 1, 0));
#if 0
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, NULL_PTR, ptr_type_node);
#endif
  endlink = void_list_node;
  int_endlink = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, integer_type_node, endlink);
  double_endlink = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, double_type_node, endlink);
  unsigned_endlink = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, unsigned_type_node, endlink);

  ptr_ftype = build_function_type (ptr_type_node, NULL_TREE);
  ptr_ftype_unsigned = build_function_type (ptr_type_node, unsigned_endlink);
  sizetype_endlink = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, sizetype, endlink);
  /* We realloc here because sizetype could be int or unsigned.  S'ok.  */
  ptr_ftype_sizetype = build_function_type (ptr_type_node, sizetype_endlink);

  void_ftype = build_function_type (void_type_node, endlink);
  void_ftype_int = build_function_type (void_type_node, int_endlink);
  void_ftype_ptr
    = build_function_type (void_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, ptr_type_node, endlink));
  void_ftype_ptr
    = build_exception_variant (void_ftype_ptr,
                         tree_cons (NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE));

  float_ftype_float
    = build_function_type (float_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, float_type_node, endlink));

  double_ftype_double
    = build_function_type (double_type_node, double_endlink);

  ldouble_ftype_ldouble
    = build_function_type (long_double_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, long_double_type_node,
                              endlink));

  double_ftype_double_double
    = build_function_type (double_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, double_type_node,
                              double_endlink));

  int_ftype_int
    = build_function_type (integer_type_node, int_endlink);

  long_ftype_long
    = build_function_type (long_integer_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, long_integer_type_node,
                              endlink));

  int_ftype_cptr_cptr_sizet
    = build_function_type (integer_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, const_ptr_type_node,
                              tree_cons (NULL_TREE, const_ptr_type_node,
                                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE,
                                              sizetype,
                                              endlink))));

  string_ftype_ptr_ptr        /* strcpy prototype */
    = build_function_type (string_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, string_type_node,
                              tree_cons (NULL_TREE,
                                     const_string_type_node,
                                     endlink)));

  int_ftype_string_string     /* strcmp prototype */
    = build_function_type (integer_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, const_string_type_node,
                              tree_cons (NULL_TREE,
                                     const_string_type_node,
                                     endlink)));

  strlen_ftype          /* strlen prototype */
    = build_function_type (sizetype,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, const_string_type_node,
                              endlink));

  memcpy_ftype    /* memcpy prototype */
    = build_function_type (ptr_type_node,
                     tree_cons (NULL_TREE, ptr_type_node,
                              tree_cons (NULL_TREE, const_ptr_type_node,
                                     sizetype_endlink)));

  if (flag_huge_objects)
    delta_type_node = long_integer_type_node;
  else
    delta_type_node = short_integer_type_node;

  builtin_function ("__builtin_constant_p", default_function_type,
                BUILT_IN_CONSTANT_P, NULL_PTR);

  builtin_return_address_fndecl
    = builtin_function ("__builtin_return_address", ptr_ftype_unsigned,
                  BUILT_IN_RETURN_ADDRESS, NULL_PTR);

  builtin_function ("__builtin_frame_address", ptr_ftype_unsigned,
                BUILT_IN_FRAME_ADDRESS, NULL_PTR);

  ptr_ftype_void = build_function_type (ptr_type_node, endlink);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fp", ptr_ftype_void, BUILT_IN_FP, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sp", ptr_ftype_void, BUILT_IN_SP, NULL_PTR);

  builtin_function ("__builtin_alloca", ptr_ftype_sizetype,
                BUILT_IN_ALLOCA, "alloca");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_ffs", int_ftype_int, BUILT_IN_FFS, NULL_PTR);
  /* Define alloca, ffs as builtins.
     Declare _exit just to mark it as volatile.  */
  if (! flag_no_builtin && !flag_no_nonansi_builtin)
    {
      temp = builtin_function ("alloca", ptr_ftype_sizetype,
                         BUILT_IN_ALLOCA, NULL_PTR);
      /* Suppress error if redefined as a non-function.  */
      DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (temp) = 1;
      temp = builtin_function ("ffs", int_ftype_int, BUILT_IN_FFS, NULL_PTR);
      /* Suppress error if redefined as a non-function.  */
      DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (temp) = 1;
      temp = builtin_function ("_exit", void_ftype_int,
                         NOT_BUILT_IN, NULL_PTR);
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (temp) = 1;
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (temp) = 1;
      /* Suppress error if redefined as a non-function.  */
      DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (temp) = 1;
    }

  builtin_function ("__builtin_abs", int_ftype_int, BUILT_IN_ABS, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fabsf", float_ftype_float, BUILT_IN_FABS,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fabs", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_FABS,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fabsl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, BUILT_IN_FABS,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_labs", long_ftype_long,
                BUILT_IN_LABS, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_saveregs", ptr_ftype,
                BUILT_IN_SAVEREGS, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_classify_type", default_function_type,
                BUILT_IN_CLASSIFY_TYPE, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_next_arg", ptr_ftype,
                BUILT_IN_NEXT_ARG, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_args_info", int_ftype_int,
                BUILT_IN_ARGS_INFO, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_setjmp",
                build_function_type (integer_type_node,
                               tree_cons (NULL_TREE, ptr_type_node,
                                        endlink)),
                BUILT_IN_SETJMP, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_longjmp",
                build_function_type (integer_type_node,
                               tree_cons (NULL_TREE, ptr_type_node,
                                        tree_cons (NULL_TREE,
                                                 integer_type_node,
                                                 endlink))),
                BUILT_IN_LONGJMP, NULL_PTR);

  /* Untyped call and return.  */
  builtin_function ("__builtin_apply_args", ptr_ftype,
                BUILT_IN_APPLY_ARGS, NULL_PTR);

  temp = tree_cons (NULL_TREE,
                build_pointer_type (build_function_type (void_type_node,
                                               NULL_TREE)),
                tree_cons (NULL_TREE, ptr_ftype_sizetype, NULL_TREE));
  builtin_function ("__builtin_apply",
                build_function_type (ptr_type_node, temp),
                BUILT_IN_APPLY, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_return", void_ftype_ptr,
                BUILT_IN_RETURN, NULL_PTR);

  /* Currently under experimentation.  */
  builtin_function ("__builtin_memcpy", memcpy_ftype,
                BUILT_IN_MEMCPY, "memcpy");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_memcmp", int_ftype_cptr_cptr_sizet,
                BUILT_IN_MEMCMP, "memcmp");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_strcmp", int_ftype_string_string,
                BUILT_IN_STRCMP, "strcmp");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_strcpy", string_ftype_ptr_ptr,
                BUILT_IN_STRCPY, "strcpy");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_strlen", strlen_ftype,
                BUILT_IN_STRLEN, "strlen");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sqrtf", float_ftype_float, 
                BUILT_IN_FSQRT, "sqrtf");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fsqrt", double_ftype_double,
                BUILT_IN_FSQRT, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sqrtl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, 
                BUILT_IN_FSQRT, "sqrtl");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sinf", float_ftype_float, 
                BUILT_IN_SIN, "sinf");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sin", double_ftype_double, 
                BUILT_IN_SIN, "sin");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_sinl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, 
                BUILT_IN_SIN, "sinl");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_cosf", float_ftype_float, 
                BUILT_IN_COS, "cosf");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_cos", double_ftype_double, 
                BUILT_IN_COS, "cos");
  builtin_function ("__builtin_cosl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, 
                BUILT_IN_COS, "cosl");

  if (!flag_no_builtin)
    {
      builtin_function ("abs", int_ftype_int, BUILT_IN_ABS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("fabs", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_FABS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("labs", long_ftype_long, BUILT_IN_LABS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("fabsf", float_ftype_float, BUILT_IN_FABS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("fabsl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, BUILT_IN_FABS,
                  NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("memcpy", memcpy_ftype, BUILT_IN_MEMCPY, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("memcmp", int_ftype_cptr_cptr_sizet, BUILT_IN_MEMCMP,
                  NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("strcmp", int_ftype_string_string, BUILT_IN_STRCMP,
                  NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("strcpy", string_ftype_ptr_ptr, BUILT_IN_STRCPY,
                  NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("strlen", strlen_ftype, BUILT_IN_STRLEN, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sqrtf", float_ftype_float, BUILT_IN_FSQRT, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sqrt", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_FSQRT, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sqrtl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, BUILT_IN_FSQRT,
                  NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sinf", float_ftype_float, BUILT_IN_SIN, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sin", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_SIN, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("sinl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, BUILT_IN_SIN, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("cosf", float_ftype_float, BUILT_IN_COS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("cos", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_COS, NULL_PTR);
      builtin_function ("cosl", ldouble_ftype_ldouble, BUILT_IN_COS, NULL_PTR);

      /* Declare these functions volatile
       to avoid spurious "control drops through" warnings.  */
      temp = builtin_function ("abort", void_ftype,
                         NOT_BUILT_IN, NULL_PTR);
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (temp) = 1;
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (temp) = 1;
      /* Well, these are actually ANSI, but we can't set DECL_BUILT_IN on
         them...  */
      DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (temp) = 1;
      temp = builtin_function ("exit", void_ftype_int,
                         NOT_BUILT_IN, NULL_PTR);
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (temp) = 1;
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (temp) = 1;
      DECL_BUILT_IN_NONANSI (temp) = 1;
    }

#if 0
  /* Support for these has not been written in either expand_builtin
     or build_function_call.  */
  builtin_function ("__builtin_div", default_ftype, BUILT_IN_DIV, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_ldiv", default_ftype, BUILT_IN_LDIV, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_ffloor", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_FFLOOR,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fceil", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_FCEIL,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_fmod", double_ftype_double_double,
                BUILT_IN_FMOD, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_frem", double_ftype_double_double,
                BUILT_IN_FREM, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_memset", ptr_ftype_ptr_int_int,
                BUILT_IN_MEMSET, NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_getexp", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_GETEXP,
                NULL_PTR);
  builtin_function ("__builtin_getman", double_ftype_double, BUILT_IN_GETMAN,
                NULL_PTR);
#endif

  /* C++ extensions */

  unknown_type_node = make_node (UNKNOWN_TYPE);
  record_unknown_type (unknown_type_node, "unknown type");

  /* Indirecting an UNKNOWN_TYPE node yields an UNKNOWN_TYPE node.  */
  TREE_TYPE (unknown_type_node) = unknown_type_node;

  if (flag_ansi)
    TREE_TYPE (null_node) = type_for_size (POINTER_SIZE, 0);
  else
    TREE_TYPE (null_node) = build_pointer_type (unknown_type_node);

  /* Looking up TYPE_POINTER_TO and TYPE_REFERENCE_TO yield the same
     result.  */
  TYPE_POINTER_TO (unknown_type_node) = unknown_type_node;
  TYPE_REFERENCE_TO (unknown_type_node) = unknown_type_node;

  /* This is for handling opaque types in signatures.  */
  opaque_type_node = copy_node (ptr_type_node);
  TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (opaque_type_node) = opaque_type_node;
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, 0, opaque_type_node);

  /* This is special for C++ so functions can be overloaded.  */
  wchar_type_node
    = TREE_TYPE (IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (get_identifier (WCHAR_TYPE)));
  wchar_type_size = TYPE_PRECISION (wchar_type_node);
  signed_wchar_type_node = make_signed_type (wchar_type_size);
  unsigned_wchar_type_node = make_unsigned_type (wchar_type_size);
  wchar_type_node
    = TREE_UNSIGNED (wchar_type_node)
      ? unsigned_wchar_type_node
      : signed_wchar_type_node;
  record_builtin_type (RID_WCHAR, "__wchar_t", wchar_type_node);

  /* Artificial declaration of wchar_t -- can be bashed */
  wchar_decl_node = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, get_identifier ("wchar_t"),
                        wchar_type_node);
  pushdecl (wchar_decl_node);

  /* This is for wide string constants.  */
  wchar_array_type_node
    = build_array_type (wchar_type_node, array_domain_type);

  if (flag_vtable_thunks)
    {
      /* Make sure we get a unique function type, so we can give
       its pointer type a name.  (This wins for gdb.) */
      tree vfunc_type = make_node (FUNCTION_TYPE);
      TREE_TYPE (vfunc_type) = integer_type_node;
      TYPE_ARG_TYPES (vfunc_type) = NULL_TREE;
      layout_type (vfunc_type);

      vtable_entry_type = build_pointer_type (vfunc_type);
    }
  else
    {
      vtable_entry_type = make_lang_type (RECORD_TYPE);
      fields[0] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, delta_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[1] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, index_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[2] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, pfn_identifier,
                               ptr_type_node);
      finish_builtin_type (vtable_entry_type, VTBL_PTR_TYPE, fields, 2,
                     double_type_node);

      /* Make this part of an invisible union.  */
      fields[3] = copy_node (fields[2]);
      TREE_TYPE (fields[3]) = delta_type_node;
      DECL_NAME (fields[3]) = delta2_identifier;
      DECL_MODE (fields[3]) = TYPE_MODE (delta_type_node);
      DECL_SIZE (fields[3]) = TYPE_SIZE (delta_type_node);
      TREE_UNSIGNED (fields[3]) = 0;
      TREE_CHAIN (fields[2]) = fields[3];
      vtable_entry_type = build_type_variant (vtable_entry_type, 1, 0);
    }
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, VTBL_PTR_TYPE, vtable_entry_type);

  vtbl_type_node
    = build_array_type (vtable_entry_type, NULL_TREE);
  layout_type (vtbl_type_node);
  vtbl_type_node = cp_build_type_variant (vtbl_type_node, 1, 0);
  record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, NULL_PTR, vtbl_type_node);

  /* Simplify life by making a "sigtable_entry_type".  Give its
     fields names so that the debugger can use them.  */

  if (flag_handle_signatures)
    {
      sigtable_entry_type = make_lang_type (RECORD_TYPE);
      fields[0] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, tag_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[1] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, vb_off_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[2] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, delta_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[3] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, index_identifier,
                               delta_type_node);
      fields[4] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, pfn_identifier,
                               ptr_type_node);

      /* Set the alignment to the max of the alignment of ptr_type_node and
       delta_type_node.  Double alignment wastes a word on the Sparc.  */
      finish_builtin_type (sigtable_entry_type, SIGTABLE_PTR_TYPE, fields, 4,
                     (TYPE_ALIGN (ptr_type_node) > TYPE_ALIGN (delta_type_node))
                     ? ptr_type_node
                     : delta_type_node);

      /* Make this part of an invisible union.  */
      fields[5] = copy_node (fields[4]);
      TREE_TYPE (fields[5]) = delta_type_node;
      DECL_NAME (fields[5]) = vt_off_identifier;
      DECL_MODE (fields[5]) = TYPE_MODE (delta_type_node);
      DECL_SIZE (fields[5]) = TYPE_SIZE (delta_type_node);
      TREE_UNSIGNED (fields[5]) = 0;
      TREE_CHAIN (fields[4]) = fields[5];

      sigtable_entry_type = build_type_variant (sigtable_entry_type, 1, 0);
      record_builtin_type (RID_MAX, SIGTABLE_PTR_TYPE, sigtable_entry_type);
    }

  std_node = build_decl (NAMESPACE_DECL, 
                   get_identifier (flag_honor_std ? "fake std":"std"),
                   void_type_node);
  pushdecl (std_node);

  global_type_node = make_node (LANG_TYPE);
  record_unknown_type (global_type_node, "global type");

  /* Now, C++.  */
  current_lang_name = lang_name_cplusplus;

  {
    tree bad_alloc_type_node, newtype, deltype;
    if (flag_honor_std)
      push_namespace (get_identifier ("std"));
    bad_alloc_type_node = xref_tag
      (class_type_node, get_identifier ("bad_alloc"), NULL_TREE, 1);
    if (flag_honor_std)
      pop_namespace ();
    newtype = build_exception_variant
      (ptr_ftype_sizetype, build_tree_list (NULL_TREE, bad_alloc_type_node));
    deltype = build_exception_variant
      (void_ftype_ptr, build_tree_list (NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE));
    auto_function (ansi_opname[(int) NEW_EXPR], newtype, NOT_BUILT_IN);
    auto_function (ansi_opname[(int) VEC_NEW_EXPR], newtype, NOT_BUILT_IN);
    auto_function (ansi_opname[(int) DELETE_EXPR], deltype, NOT_BUILT_IN);
    auto_function (ansi_opname[(int) VEC_DELETE_EXPR], deltype, NOT_BUILT_IN);
  }

  abort_fndecl
    = define_function ("__pure_virtual", void_ftype,
                   NOT_BUILT_IN, 0, 0);

  /* Perform other language dependent initializations.  */
  init_class_processing ();
  init_init_processing ();
  init_search_processing ();
  if (flag_rtti)
    init_rtti_processing ();

  if (flag_exceptions)
    init_exception_processing ();
  if (flag_no_inline)
    {
      flag_inline_functions = 0;
    }

  if (! supports_one_only ())
    flag_weak = 0;

  /* Create the global bindings for __FUNCTION__ and __PRETTY_FUNCTION__.  */
  declare_function_name ();

  /* Prepare to check format strings against argument lists.  */
  init_function_format_info ();

  /* Show we use EH for cleanups.  */
  using_eh_for_cleanups ();

  print_error_function = lang_print_error_function;
  lang_get_alias_set = &c_get_alias_set;
}

/* Function to print any language-specific context for an error message.  */

static void
lang_print_error_function (file)
     char *file;
{
  default_print_error_function (file);
  maybe_print_template_context ();
}

/* Make a definition for a builtin function named NAME and whose data type
   is TYPE.  TYPE should be a function type with argument types.
   FUNCTION_CODE tells later passes how to compile calls to this function.
   See tree.h for its possible values.

   If LIBRARY_NAME is nonzero, use that for DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME,
   the name to be called if we can't opencode the function.  */

tree
define_function (name, type, function_code, pfn, library_name)
     char *name;
     tree type;
     enum built_in_function function_code;
     void (*pfn) PROTO((tree));
     char *library_name;
{
  tree decl = build_lang_decl (FUNCTION_DECL, get_identifier (name), type);
  DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
  TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;
  DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl) = 1;

  my_friendly_assert (DECL_CONTEXT (decl) == NULL_TREE, 392);
  DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = FROB_CONTEXT (current_namespace);

  /* Since `pushdecl' relies on DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME instead of DECL_NAME,
     we cannot change DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME until we have installed this
     function in the namespace.  */
  if (pfn) (*pfn) (decl);
  if (library_name)
    DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = get_identifier (library_name);
  make_function_rtl (decl);
  if (function_code != NOT_BUILT_IN)
    {
      DECL_BUILT_IN (decl) = 1;
      DECL_FUNCTION_CODE (decl) = function_code;
    }
  return decl;
}

/* Called when a declaration is seen that contains no names to declare.
   If its type is a reference to a structure, union or enum inherited
   from a containing scope, shadow that tag name for the current scope
   with a forward reference.
   If its type defines a new named structure or union
   or defines an enum, it is valid but we need not do anything here.
   Otherwise, it is an error.

   C++: may have to grok the declspecs to learn about static,
   complain for anonymous unions.  */

void
shadow_tag (declspecs)
     tree declspecs;
{
  int found_tag = 0;
  tree ob_modifier = NULL_TREE;
  register tree link;
  register enum tree_code code, ok_code = ERROR_MARK;
  register tree t = NULL_TREE;

  for (link = declspecs; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
    {
      register tree value = TREE_VALUE (link);

      code = TREE_CODE (value);
      if (IS_AGGR_TYPE_CODE (code) || code == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
      {
        my_friendly_assert (TYPE_MAIN_DECL (value) != NULL_TREE, 261);

        if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (value) && CLASSTYPE_USE_TEMPLATE (value))
          {
            if (CLASSTYPE_IMPLICIT_INSTANTIATION (value)
              && TYPE_SIZE (value) == NULL_TREE)
            {
              SET_CLASSTYPE_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (value);
              if (processing_template_decl)
                push_template_decl (TYPE_MAIN_DECL (value));
            }
            else if (CLASSTYPE_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (value))
            cp_error ("specialization after instantiation of `%T'", value);
          }

        t = value;
        ok_code = code;
        found_tag++;
      }
      else if (value == ridpointers[(int) RID_STATIC]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_EXTERN]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_AUTO]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_REGISTER]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_INLINE]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_VIRTUAL]
             || value == ridpointers[(int) RID_EXPLICIT])
      ob_modifier = value;
    }

  /* This is where the variables in an anonymous union are
     declared.  An anonymous union declaration looks like:
     union { ... } ;
     because there is no declarator after the union, the parser
     sends that declaration here.  */
  if (ok_code == UNION_TYPE
      && t != NULL_TREE
      && ((TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (t)) == IDENTIFIER_NODE
         && ANON_AGGRNAME_P (TYPE_NAME (t)))
        || (TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (t)) == TYPE_DECL
            && ANON_AGGRNAME_P (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (t)))))
    {
      /* See also grok_x_components.  */
      tree *q;

      /* Wipe out memory of synthesized methods */
      TYPE_HAS_CONSTRUCTOR (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_DEFAULT_CONSTRUCTOR (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_INIT_REF (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_CONST_INIT_REF (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_ASSIGN_REF (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_ASSIGNMENT (t) = 0;
      TYPE_HAS_CONST_ASSIGN_REF (t) = 0;

      q = &TYPE_METHODS (t);
      while (*q)
      {
        if (DECL_ARTIFICIAL (*q))
          *q = TREE_CHAIN (*q);
        else
          q = &TREE_CHAIN (*q);
      }

      /* ANSI C++ June 5 1992 WP 9.5.3.  Anonymous unions may not have
       function members.  */
      if (TYPE_METHODS (t))
      error ("an anonymous union cannot have function members");

      if (TYPE_FIELDS (t))
      {
        tree decl = grokdeclarator (NULL_TREE, declspecs, NORMAL, 0,
                              NULL_TREE);
        finish_anon_union (decl);
      }
    }
  else
    {
      /* Anonymous unions are objects, that's why we only check for
       inappropriate specifiers in this branch.  */

      if (ob_modifier)
      {
        if (ob_modifier == ridpointers[(int) RID_INLINE]
            || ob_modifier == ridpointers[(int) RID_VIRTUAL])
          cp_error ("`%D' can only be specified for functions", ob_modifier);
        else if (ob_modifier == ridpointers[(int) RID_EXPLICIT])
          cp_error ("`%D' can only be specified for constructors",
                  ob_modifier);
        else
          cp_error ("`%D' can only be specified for objects and functions",
                  ob_modifier);
      }

      if (found_tag == 0)
      cp_error ("abstract declarator used as declaration");
      else if (found_tag > 1)
      pedwarn ("multiple types in one declaration");
    }
}

/* Decode a "typename", such as "int **", returning a ..._TYPE node.  */

tree
groktypename (typename)
     tree typename;
{
  if (TREE_CODE (typename) != TREE_LIST)
    return typename;
  return grokdeclarator (TREE_VALUE (typename),
                   TREE_PURPOSE (typename),
                   TYPENAME, 0, NULL_TREE);
}

/* Decode a declarator in an ordinary declaration or data definition.
   This is called as soon as the type information and variable name
   have been parsed, before parsing the initializer if any.
   Here we create the ..._DECL node, fill in its type,
   and put it on the list of decls for the current context.
   The ..._DECL node is returned as the value.

   Exception: for arrays where the length is not specified,
   the type is left null, to be filled in by `cp_finish_decl'.

   Function definitions do not come here; they go to start_function
   instead.  However, external and forward declarations of functions
   do go through here.  Structure field declarations are done by
   grokfield and not through here.  */

/* Set this to zero to debug not using the temporary obstack
   to parse initializers.  */
int debug_temp_inits = 1;

tree
start_decl (declarator, declspecs, initialized, attributes, prefix_attributes)
     tree declarator, declspecs;
     int initialized;
     tree attributes, prefix_attributes;
{
  register tree decl;
  register tree type, tem;
  tree context;
  extern int have_extern_spec;
  extern int used_extern_spec;

#if 0
  /* See code below that used this.  */
  int init_written = initialized;
#endif

  /* This should only be done once on the top most decl.  */
  if (have_extern_spec && !used_extern_spec)
    {
      declspecs = decl_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, get_identifier ("extern"),
                          declspecs);
      used_extern_spec = 1;
    }

  decl = grokdeclarator (declarator, declspecs, NORMAL, initialized,
                   NULL_TREE);
  if (decl == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (decl) == VOID_TYPE)
    return NULL_TREE;

  type = TREE_TYPE (decl);

  /* Don't lose if destructors must be executed at file-level.  */
  if (! processing_template_decl && TREE_STATIC (decl)
      && TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (complete_type (type))
      && !TREE_PERMANENT (decl))
    {
      push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
      decl = copy_node (decl);
      if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
      {
        tree itype = TYPE_DOMAIN (type);
        if (itype && ! TREE_PERMANENT (itype))
          {
            itype = build_index_type (copy_to_permanent (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (itype)));
            type = build_cplus_array_type (TREE_TYPE (type), itype);
            TREE_TYPE (decl) = type;
          }
      }
      pop_obstacks ();
    }

  context
    = (TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL && DECL_VIRTUAL_P (decl))
      ? DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (decl)
      : DECL_CONTEXT (decl);

  if (initialized && context && TREE_CODE (context) == NAMESPACE_DECL
      && context != current_namespace && TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL)
    {
      /* When parsing the initializer, lookup should use the object's
       namespace. */
      push_decl_namespace (context);
    }

  /* We are only interested in class contexts, later. */
  if (context && TREE_CODE (context) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
    context = NULL_TREE;

  if (initialized)
    /* Is it valid for this decl to have an initializer at all?
       If not, set INITIALIZED to zero, which will indirectly
       tell `cp_finish_decl' to ignore the initializer once it is parsed.  */
    switch (TREE_CODE (decl))
      {
      case TYPE_DECL:
      /* typedef foo = bar  means give foo the same type as bar.
         We haven't parsed bar yet, so `cp_finish_decl' will fix that up.
         Any other case of an initialization in a TYPE_DECL is an error.  */
      if (pedantic || list_length (declspecs) > 1)
        {
          cp_error ("typedef `%D' is initialized", decl);
          initialized = 0;
        }
      break;

      case FUNCTION_DECL:
      cp_error ("function `%#D' is initialized like a variable", decl);
      initialized = 0;
      break;

      default:
      if (! processing_template_decl)
        {
          if (type != error_mark_node)
            {
            if (TYPE_SIZE (type) != NULL_TREE
                && ! TREE_CONSTANT (TYPE_SIZE (type)))
              {
                cp_error
                  ("variable-sized object `%D' may not be initialized",
                   decl);
                initialized = 0;
              }

            if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
                && TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (TREE_TYPE (type))) == NULL_TREE)
              {
                cp_error
                  ("elements of array `%#D' have incomplete type", decl);
                initialized = 0;
              }
            }
        }
      }

  if (initialized)
    {
      if (! toplevel_bindings_p ()
        && DECL_EXTERNAL (decl))
      cp_warning ("declaration of `%#D' has `extern' and is initialized",
                decl);
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 0;
      if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
      TREE_STATIC (decl) = 1;

      /* Tell `pushdecl' this is an initialized decl
       even though we don't yet have the initializer expression.
       Also tell `cp_finish_decl' it may store the real initializer.  */
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = error_mark_node;
    }

  if (context && TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (context)) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL)
      {
        tree field = lookup_field (context, DECL_NAME (decl), 0, 0);
        if (field == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (field) != VAR_DECL)
          cp_error ("`%#D' is not a static member of `%#T'", decl, context);
        else
          {
            if (DECL_CONTEXT (field) != context)
            {
              cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ does not permit `%T::%D' to be defined as `%T::%D'",
                        DECL_CONTEXT (field), DECL_NAME (decl),
                        context, DECL_NAME (decl));
              DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = DECL_CONTEXT (field);
            }
            /* Static data member are tricky; an in-class initialization
             still doesn't provide a definition, so the in-class
             declaration will have DECL_EXTERNAL set, but will have an
             initialization.  Thus, duplicate_decls won't warn
             about this situation, and so we check here.  */
            if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) && DECL_INITIAL (field))
            cp_error ("duplicate initialization of %D", decl);
            if (duplicate_decls (decl, field))
            decl = field;
          }
      }
      else
      {
        tree field = check_classfn (context, decl);
        if (field && duplicate_decls (decl, field))
          decl = field;
      }

      /* cp_finish_decl sets DECL_EXTERNAL if DECL_IN_AGGR_P is set.  */
      DECL_IN_AGGR_P (decl) = 0;
      if ((DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl) && DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (decl)) 
        || CLASSTYPE_USE_TEMPLATE (context))
      SET_DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (decl);

      if (DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) && ! DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (decl))
      cp_pedwarn ("declaration of `%#D' outside of class is not definition",
                decl);

      pushclass (context, 2);
    }

  /* Set attributes here so if duplicate decl, will have proper attributes.  */
  cplus_decl_attributes (decl, attributes, prefix_attributes);

  /* Add this decl to the current binding level, but not if it
     comes from another scope, e.g. a static member variable.
     TEM may equal DECL or it may be a previous decl of the same name.  */
  
  if ((TREE_CODE (decl) != PARM_DECL && DECL_CONTEXT (decl) != NULL_TREE 
       /* Definitions of namespace members outside their namespace are
        possible. */
       && TREE_CODE (DECL_CONTEXT (decl)) != NAMESPACE_DECL)
      || (TREE_CODE (decl) == TEMPLATE_DECL && !namespace_bindings_p ())
      || TREE_CODE (type) == LANG_TYPE
      /* The declaration of template specializations does not affect
       the functions available for overload resolution, so we do not
       call pushdecl.  */
      || (TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL
        && DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (decl)))
    tem = decl;
  else
    tem = pushdecl (decl);

  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (! current_function_decl)
      tem = push_template_decl (tem);
      else if (minimal_parse_mode)
      DECL_VINDEX (tem)
          = build_min_nt (DECL_STMT, copy_to_permanent (declarator),
                      copy_to_permanent (declspecs),
                      NULL_TREE);
    }


#if ! defined (ASM_OUTPUT_BSS) && ! defined (ASM_OUTPUT_ALIGNED_BSS)
  /* Tell the back-end to use or not use .common as appropriate.  If we say
     -fconserve-space, we want this to save .data space, at the expense of
     wrong semantics.  If we say -fno-conserve-space, we want this to
     produce errors about redefs; to do this we force variables into the
     data segment.  */
  DECL_COMMON (tem) = flag_conserve_space || ! TREE_PUBLIC (tem);
#endif

  if (! processing_template_decl)
    start_decl_1 (tem);

  /* Corresponding pop_obstacks is done in `cp_finish_decl'.  */
  push_obstacks_nochange ();

#if 0
  /* We have no way of knowing whether the initializer will need to be
     evaluated at run-time or not until we've parsed it, so let's just put
     it in the permanent obstack.  (jason) */
  if (init_written
      && ! (TREE_CODE (tem) == PARM_DECL
          || (TREE_READONLY (tem)
            && (TREE_CODE (tem) == VAR_DECL
                || TREE_CODE (tem) == FIELD_DECL))))
    {
      /* When parsing and digesting the initializer,
       use temporary storage.  Do this even if we will ignore the value.  */
      if (toplevel_bindings_p () && debug_temp_inits)
      {
        if (processing_template_decl
            || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type)
            || TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
          /* In this case, the initializer must lay down in permanent
             storage, since it will be saved until `finish_file' is run.   */
          ;
        else
          temporary_allocation ();
      }
    }
#endif

  return tem;
}

void
start_decl_1 (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (decl);
  int initialized = (DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE);

  /* If this type of object needs a cleanup, and control may
     jump past it, make a new binding level so that it is cleaned
     up only when it is initialized first.  */
  if (TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type)
      && current_binding_level->more_cleanups_ok == 0)
    pushlevel_temporary (1);

  if (initialized)
    /* Is it valid for this decl to have an initializer at all?
       If not, set INITIALIZED to zero, which will indirectly
       tell `cp_finish_decl' to ignore the initializer once it is parsed.  */
    {
      /* Don't allow initializations for incomplete types except for
       arrays which might be completed by the initialization.  */
      if (type == error_mark_node)
      ;                 /* Don't complain again.  */
      else if (TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (type)) != NULL_TREE)
      ;                 /* A complete type is ok.  */
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) != ARRAY_TYPE)
      {
        cp_error ("variable `%#D' has initializer but incomplete type",
                decl);
        initialized = 0;
        type = TREE_TYPE (decl) = error_mark_node;
      }
      else if (TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (TREE_TYPE (type))) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl) && DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (decl))
          cp_error ("elements of array `%#D' have incomplete type", decl);
        /* else we already gave an error in start_decl.  */
        initialized = 0;
      }
    }

  if (!initialized
      && TREE_CODE (decl) != TYPE_DECL
      && TREE_CODE (decl) != TEMPLATE_DECL
      && IS_AGGR_TYPE (type) && ! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl))
    {
      if ((! processing_template_decl || ! uses_template_parms (type))
        && TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (type)) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        cp_error ("aggregate `%#D' has incomplete type and cannot be initialized",
             decl);
        /* Change the type so that assemble_variable will give
           DECL an rtl we can live with: (mem (const_int 0)).  */
        type = TREE_TYPE (decl) = error_mark_node;
      }
      else
      {
        /* If any base type in the hierarchy of TYPE needs a constructor,
           then we set initialized to 1.  This way any nodes which are
           created for the purposes of initializing this aggregate
           will live as long as it does.  This is necessary for global
           aggregates which do not have their initializers processed until
           the end of the file.  */
        initialized = TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type);
      }
    }

#if 0
  /* We don't do this yet for GNU C++.  */
  /* For a local variable, define the RTL now.  */
  if (! toplevel_bindings_p ()
      /* But not if this is a duplicate decl
       and we preserved the rtl from the previous one
       (which may or may not happen).  */
      && DECL_RTL (tem) == NULL_RTX)
    {
      if (TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (tem)) != NULL_TREE)
      expand_decl (tem);
      else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (tem)) == ARRAY_TYPE
             && DECL_INITIAL (tem) != NULL_TREE)
      expand_decl (tem);
    }
#endif

  if (! initialized)
    DECL_INITIAL (decl) = NULL_TREE;
}

/* Handle initialization of references.
   These three arguments are from `cp_finish_decl', and have the
   same meaning here that they do there.

   Quotes on semantics can be found in ARM 8.4.3.  */

static void
grok_reference_init (decl, type, init)
     tree decl, type, init;
{
  tree tmp;

  if (init == NULL_TREE)
    {
      if ((DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl) == 0
         || DECL_IN_AGGR_P (decl) == 0)
        && ! DECL_THIS_EXTERN (decl))
      {
        cp_error ("`%D' declared as reference but not initialized", decl);
        if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL)
          SET_DECL_REFERENCE_SLOT (decl, error_mark_node);
      }
      return;
    }

  if (init == error_mark_node)
    return;

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (init) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      cp_error ("ANSI C++ forbids use of initializer list to initialize reference `%D'", decl);
      return;
    }

  if (TREE_TYPE (init) && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (init)) == UNKNOWN_TYPE)
    /* decay_conversion is probably wrong for references to functions.  */
    init = decay_conversion (instantiate_type (TREE_TYPE (type), init, 1));

  if (TREE_CODE (init) == TREE_LIST)
    init = build_compound_expr (init);

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (init)) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
    init = convert_from_reference (init);

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) != ARRAY_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (init)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      /* Note: default conversion is only called in very special cases.  */
      init = default_conversion (init);
    }

  tmp = convert_to_reference
    (type, init, CONV_IMPLICIT,
     LOOKUP_SPECULATIVELY|LOOKUP_NORMAL|DIRECT_BIND, decl);

  if (tmp == error_mark_node)
    goto fail;
  else if (tmp != NULL_TREE)
    {
      init = tmp;
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = save_expr (init);
    }
  else
    {
      cp_error ("cannot initialize `%T' from `%T'", type, TREE_TYPE (init));
      goto fail;
    }

  /* ?? Can this be optimized in some cases to
     hand back the DECL_INITIAL slot??  */
  if (TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (type)))
    {
      init = convert_from_reference (decl);
      if (TREE_PERMANENT (decl))
      init = copy_to_permanent (init);
      SET_DECL_REFERENCE_SLOT (decl, init);
    }

  if (TREE_STATIC (decl) && ! TREE_CONSTANT (DECL_INITIAL (decl)))
    {
      expand_static_init (decl, DECL_INITIAL (decl));
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = NULL_TREE;
    }
  return;

 fail:
  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL)
    SET_DECL_REFERENCE_SLOT (decl, error_mark_node);
  return;
}

/* Fill in DECL_INITIAL with some magical value to prevent expand_decl from
   mucking with forces it does not comprehend (i.e. initialization with a
   constructor).  If we are at global scope and won't go into COMMON, fill
   it in with a dummy CONSTRUCTOR to force the variable into .data;
   otherwise we can use error_mark_node.  */

static tree
obscure_complex_init (decl, init)
     tree decl, init;
{
  if (! flag_no_inline && TREE_STATIC (decl))
    {
      if (extract_init (decl, init))
      return NULL_TREE;
    }

#if ! defined (ASM_OUTPUT_BSS) && ! defined (ASM_OUTPUT_ALIGNED_BSS)
  if (toplevel_bindings_p () && ! DECL_COMMON (decl))
    DECL_INITIAL (decl) = build (CONSTRUCTOR, TREE_TYPE (decl), NULL_TREE,
                         NULL_TREE);
  else
#endif
    DECL_INITIAL (decl) = error_mark_node;

  return init;
}

/* Finish processing of a declaration;
   install its line number and initial value.
   If the length of an array type is not known before,
   it must be determined now, from the initial value, or it is an error.

   Call `pop_obstacks' iff NEED_POP is nonzero.

   For C++, `cp_finish_decl' must be fairly evasive:  it must keep initializers
   for aggregates that have constructors alive on the permanent obstack,
   so that the global initializing functions can be written at the end.

   INIT0 holds the value of an initializer that should be allowed to escape
   the normal rules.

   FLAGS is LOOKUP_ONLYCONVERTING is the = init syntax was used, else 0
   if the (init) syntax was used.

   For functions that take default parameters, DECL points to its
   "maximal" instantiation.  `cp_finish_decl' must then also declared its
   subsequently lower and lower forms of instantiation, checking for
   ambiguity as it goes.  This can be sped up later.  */

void
cp_finish_decl (decl, init, asmspec_tree, need_pop, flags)
     tree decl, init;
     tree asmspec_tree;
     int need_pop;
     int flags;
{
  register tree type;
  tree cleanup = NULL_TREE, ttype = NULL_TREE;
  int was_incomplete;
  int temporary = allocation_temporary_p ();
  char *asmspec = NULL;
  int was_readonly = 0;
  int already_used = 0;

  /* If this is 0, then we did not change obstacks.  */
  if (! decl)
    {
      if (init)
      error ("assignment (not initialization) in declaration");
      return;
    }

  /* If a name was specified, get the string.  */
  if (asmspec_tree)
      asmspec = TREE_STRING_POINTER (asmspec_tree);

  if (init && TREE_CODE (init) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
    {
      cp_error ("Cannot initialize `%D' to namespace `%D'",
            decl, init);
      init = NULL_TREE;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL 
      && DECL_CONTEXT (decl)
      && TREE_CODE (DECL_CONTEXT (decl)) == NAMESPACE_DECL
      && DECL_CONTEXT (decl) != current_namespace
      && init)
    {
      /* Leave the namespace of the object. */
      pop_decl_namespace ();
    }

  /* If the type of the thing we are declaring either has
     a constructor, or has a virtual function table pointer,
     AND its initialization was accepted by `start_decl',
     then we stayed on the permanent obstack through the
     declaration, otherwise, changed obstacks as GCC would.  */

  type = TREE_TYPE (decl);

  if (type == error_mark_node)
    {
      if (toplevel_bindings_p () && temporary)
      end_temporary_allocation ();

      return;
    }

  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (init && DECL_INITIAL (decl))
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = init;
      if (minimal_parse_mode && ! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl))
      {
        tree stmt = DECL_VINDEX (decl);
        /* If the decl is declaring a member of a local class (in a
           template function), the DECL_VINDEX will either be NULL,
           or it will be an actual virtual function index, not a
           DECL_STMT.  */
        if (stmt != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (stmt) == DECL_STMT)
          {
            DECL_VINDEX (decl) = NULL_TREE;
            TREE_OPERAND (stmt, 2) = copy_to_permanent (init);
            add_tree (stmt);
          }
      }

      goto finish_end0;
    }
  /* Take care of TYPE_DECLs up front.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == TYPE_DECL)
    {
      if (init && DECL_INITIAL (decl))
      {
        /* typedef foo = bar; store the type of bar as the type of foo.  */
        TREE_TYPE (decl) = type = TREE_TYPE (init);
        DECL_INITIAL (decl) = init = NULL_TREE;
      }
      if (type != error_mark_node
        && IS_AGGR_TYPE (type) && DECL_NAME (decl))
      {
        if (TREE_TYPE (DECL_NAME (decl)) && TREE_TYPE (decl) != type)
          cp_warning ("shadowing previous type declaration of `%#D'", decl);
        set_identifier_type_value (DECL_NAME (decl), type);
        CLASSTYPE_GOT_SEMICOLON (type) = 1;
      }
      GNU_xref_decl (current_function_decl, decl);

      /* If we have installed this as the canonical typedef for this
       type, and that type has not been defined yet, delay emitting
       the debug information for it, as we will emit it later.  */
      if (TYPE_MAIN_DECL (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == decl
        && TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == NULL_TREE)
      TYPE_DECL_SUPPRESS_DEBUG (decl) = 1;

      rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, NULL_PTR,
                        DECL_CONTEXT (decl) == NULL_TREE, at_eof);
      goto finish_end;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (decl) != FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      ttype = target_type (type);
    }

  if (! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) && TREE_READONLY (decl)
      && TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type))
    {

      /* Currently, GNU C++ puts constants in text space, making them
       impossible to initialize.  In the future, one would hope for
       an operating system which understood the difference between
       initialization and the running of a program.  */
      was_readonly = 1;
      TREE_READONLY (decl) = 0;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == FIELD_DECL)
    {
      if (init && init != error_mark_node)
      my_friendly_assert (TREE_PERMANENT (init), 147);

      if (asmspec)
      {
        /* This must override the asm specifier which was placed
           by grokclassfn.  Lay this out fresh.  */
        DECL_RTL (TREE_TYPE (decl)) = NULL_RTX;
        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = get_identifier (asmspec);
        make_decl_rtl (decl, asmspec, 0);
      }
    }
  /* If `start_decl' didn't like having an initialization, ignore it now.  */
  else if (init != NULL_TREE && DECL_INITIAL (decl) == NULL_TREE)
    init = NULL_TREE;
  else if (DECL_EXTERNAL (decl))
    ;
  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE
         || (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type) && IS_SIGNATURE_REFERENCE (type)))
    {
      if (TREE_STATIC (decl))
      make_decl_rtl (decl, NULL_PTR,
                   toplevel_bindings_p ()
                   || pseudo_global_level_p ());
      grok_reference_init (decl, type, init);
      init = NULL_TREE;
    }

  GNU_xref_decl (current_function_decl, decl);

  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == FIELD_DECL)
    ;
  else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == CONST_DECL)
    {
      my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (decl) != REFERENCE_TYPE, 148);

      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = init;

      /* This will keep us from needing to worry about our obstacks.  */
      my_friendly_assert (init != NULL_TREE, 149);
      init = NULL_TREE;
    }
  else if (init)
    {
      if (TYPE_HAS_CONSTRUCTOR (type) || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type))
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
          init = digest_init (type, init, (tree *) 0);
        else if (TREE_CODE (init) == CONSTRUCTOR)
          {
            if (TYPE_NON_AGGREGATE_CLASS (type))
            {
              cp_error ("`%D' must be initialized by constructor, not by `{...}'",
                      decl);
              init = error_mark_node;
            }
            else
            goto dont_use_constructor;
          }
      }
      else
      {
      dont_use_constructor:
        if (TREE_CODE (init) != TREE_VEC)
          init = store_init_value (decl, init);
      }

      if (init)
      /* We must hide the initializer so that expand_decl
         won't try to do something it does not understand.  */
      init = obscure_complex_init (decl, init);
    }
  else if (DECL_EXTERNAL (decl))
    ;
  else if (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (type)) == 't'
         && (IS_AGGR_TYPE (type) || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type)))
    {
      tree ctype = type;
      while (TREE_CODE (ctype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
      ctype = TREE_TYPE (ctype);
      if (! TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (ctype))
      {
        if (CLASSTYPE_READONLY_FIELDS_NEED_INIT (ctype))
          cp_error ("structure `%D' with uninitialized const members", decl);
        if (CLASSTYPE_REF_FIELDS_NEED_INIT (ctype))
          cp_error ("structure `%D' with uninitialized reference members",
                  decl);
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
        && !DECL_INITIAL (decl)
        && !TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type)
        && (TYPE_READONLY (type) || TREE_READONLY (decl)))
      cp_error ("uninitialized const `%D'", decl);

      if (TYPE_SIZE (type) != NULL_TREE
        && TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type))
      init = obscure_complex_init (decl, NULL_TREE);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
         && TREE_CODE (type) != REFERENCE_TYPE
         && (TYPE_READONLY (type) || TREE_READONLY (decl)))
    {
      /* ``Unless explicitly declared extern, a const object does not have
       external linkage and must be initialized. ($8.4; $12.1)'' ARM 7.1.6
       However, if it's `const int foo = 1; const int foo;', don't complain
       about the second decl, since it does have an initializer before.
       We deliberately don't complain about arrays, because they're
       supposed to be initialized by a constructor.  */
      if (! DECL_INITIAL (decl)
        && TREE_CODE (type) != ARRAY_TYPE
        && (!pedantic || !current_class_type))
      cp_error ("uninitialized const `%#D'", decl);
    }

  /* For top-level declaration, the initial value was read in
     the temporary obstack.  MAXINDEX, rtl, etc. to be made below
     must go in the permanent obstack; but don't discard the
     temporary data yet.  */

  if (toplevel_bindings_p () && temporary)
    end_temporary_allocation ();

  /* Deduce size of array from initialization, if not already known.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE
      && TREE_CODE (decl) != TYPE_DECL)
    {
      int do_default
      = (TREE_STATIC (decl)
         /* Even if pedantic, an external linkage array
            may have incomplete type at first.  */
         ? pedantic && ! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl)
         : !DECL_EXTERNAL (decl));
      tree initializer = init ? init : DECL_INITIAL (decl);
      int failure = complete_array_type (type, initializer, do_default);

      if (failure == 1)
      cp_error ("initializer fails to determine size of `%D'", decl);

      if (failure == 2)
      {
        if (do_default)
          cp_error ("array size missing in `%D'", decl);
        /* If a `static' var's size isn't known, make it extern as
           well as static, so it does not get allocated.  If it's not
           `static', then don't mark it extern; finish_incomplete_decl
           will give it a default size and it will get allocated.  */
        else if (!pedantic && TREE_STATIC (decl) && !TREE_PUBLIC (decl))
          DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
      }

      if (pedantic && TYPE_DOMAIN (type) != NULL_TREE
        && tree_int_cst_lt (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)),
                        integer_zero_node))
      cp_error ("zero-size array `%D'", decl);

      layout_decl (decl, 0);
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL)
    {
      if (DECL_SIZE (decl) == NULL_TREE
        && TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (TREE_TYPE (decl))) != NULL_TREE)
      layout_decl (decl, 0);

      if (TREE_STATIC (decl) && DECL_SIZE (decl) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        /* A static variable with an incomplete type:
           that is an error if it is initialized.
           Otherwise, let it through, but if it is not `extern'
           then it may cause an error message later.  */
        if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE)
          cp_error ("storage size of `%D' isn't known", decl);
        init = NULL_TREE;
      }
      else if (!DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) && DECL_SIZE (decl) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        /* An automatic variable with an incomplete type: that is an error.
           Don't talk about array types here, since we took care of that
           message in grokdeclarator.  */
        cp_error ("storage size of `%D' isn't known", decl);
        TREE_TYPE (decl) = error_mark_node;
      }
      else if (!DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) && IS_AGGR_TYPE (ttype))
      /* Let debugger know it should output info for this type.  */
      note_debug_info_needed (ttype);

      if (TREE_STATIC (decl) && DECL_CLASS_SCOPE_P (decl))
      note_debug_info_needed (DECL_CONTEXT (decl));

      if ((DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) || TREE_STATIC (decl))
        && DECL_SIZE (decl) != NULL_TREE
        && ! TREE_CONSTANT (DECL_SIZE (decl)))
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (DECL_SIZE (decl)) == INTEGER_CST)
          constant_expression_warning (DECL_SIZE (decl));
        else
          cp_error ("storage size of `%D' isn't constant", decl);
      }

      if (! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) && TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type)
        /* Cleanups for static variables are handled by `finish_file'.  */
        && ! TREE_STATIC (decl))
      {
        int yes = suspend_momentary ();
        cleanup = maybe_build_cleanup (decl);
        resume_momentary (yes);
      }
    }
  /* PARM_DECLs get cleanups, too.  */
  else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == PARM_DECL && TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type))
    {
      if (temporary)
      end_temporary_allocation ();
      cleanup = maybe_build_cleanup (decl);
      if (temporary)
      resume_temporary_allocation ();
    }

  /* Output the assembler code and/or RTL code for variables and functions,
     unless the type is an undefined structure or union.
     If not, it will get done when the type is completed.  */

  was_incomplete = (DECL_SIZE (decl) == NULL_TREE);

  if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL || TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL
      || TREE_CODE (decl) == RESULT_DECL)
    {
      /* ??? FIXME: What about nested classes?  */
      int toplev = toplevel_bindings_p () || pseudo_global_level_p ();
      int was_temp
      = (TREE_STATIC (decl) && TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type)
         && allocation_temporary_p ());

      if (was_temp)
      end_temporary_allocation ();

      /* Static data in a function with comdat linkage also has comdat
         linkage.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
        && TREE_STATIC (decl)
        /* Don't mess with __FUNCTION__.  */
        && ! TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (decl)
        && current_function_decl
        && DECL_CONTEXT (decl) == current_function_decl
        && (DECL_THIS_INLINE (current_function_decl)
            || DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (current_function_decl))
        && TREE_PUBLIC (current_function_decl))
      {
        /* Rather than try to get this right with inlining, we suppress
           inlining of such functions.  */
        current_function_cannot_inline
          = "function with static variable cannot be inline";

        /* If flag_weak, we don't need to mess with this, as we can just
           make the function weak, and let it refer to its unique local
           copy.  This works because we don't allow the function to be
           inlined.  */
        if (! flag_weak)
          {
            if (DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (current_function_decl))
            {
              TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;
              DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = DECL_EXTERNAL (current_function_decl);
            }
            else if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) == NULL_TREE
                   || DECL_INITIAL (decl) == error_mark_node)
            {
              TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;
              DECL_COMMON (decl) = 1;
            }
            /* else we lose. We can only do this if we can use common,
                 which we can't if it has been initialized.  */

            if (TREE_PUBLIC (decl))
            DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl)
              = build_static_name (current_function_decl, DECL_NAME (decl));
            else if (! DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl))
            {
              cp_warning_at ("sorry: semantics of inline function static data `%#D' are wrong (you'll wind up with multiple copies)", decl);
              cp_warning_at ("  you can work around this by removing the initializer"), decl;
            }
          }
      }

      else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
             && DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl)
             && DECL_COMDAT (decl))
      {
        /* Dynamically initialized vars go into common.  */
        if (DECL_INITIAL (decl) == NULL_TREE
            || DECL_INITIAL (decl) == error_mark_node)
          DECL_COMMON (decl) = 1;
        else if (EMPTY_CONSTRUCTOR_P (DECL_INITIAL (decl)))
          {
            DECL_COMMON (decl) = 1;
            DECL_INITIAL (decl) = error_mark_node;
          }
        else
          {
            /* Statically initialized vars are weak or comdat, if
                 supported.  */
            if (flag_weak)
            make_decl_one_only (decl);
            else
            {
              /* We can't do anything useful; leave vars for explicit
                 instantiation.  */
              DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
              DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (decl) = 0;
            }
          }
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL && DECL_VIRTUAL_P (decl))
      make_decl_rtl (decl, NULL_PTR, toplev);
      else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
             && TREE_READONLY (decl)
             && DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE
             && DECL_INITIAL (decl) != error_mark_node
             && ! EMPTY_CONSTRUCTOR_P (DECL_INITIAL (decl)))
      {
        DECL_INITIAL (decl) = save_expr (DECL_INITIAL (decl));

        if (asmspec)
          DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = get_identifier (asmspec);

        if (! toplev
            && TREE_STATIC (decl)
            && ! TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (decl)
            && ! TREE_PUBLIC (decl)
            && ! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl)
            && ! TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type)
            && DECL_MODE (decl) != BLKmode)
          {
            /* If this variable is really a constant, then fill its DECL_RTL
             slot with something which won't take up storage.
             If something later should take its address, we can always give
             it legitimate RTL at that time.  */
            DECL_RTL (decl) = gen_reg_rtx (DECL_MODE (decl));
            store_expr (DECL_INITIAL (decl), DECL_RTL (decl), 0);
            TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (decl) = 1;
          }
        else if (toplev && ! TREE_PUBLIC (decl))
          {
            /* If this is a static const, change its apparent linkage
               if it belongs to a #pragma interface.  */
            if (!interface_unknown)
            {
              TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;
              DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = interface_only;
            }
            make_decl_rtl (decl, asmspec, toplev);
          }
        else
          rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, asmspec, toplev, at_eof);
      }
      else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
             && DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl)
             && DECL_IN_AGGR_P (decl))
      {
        if (TREE_STATIC (decl))
          {
            if (init == NULL_TREE
#ifdef DEFAULT_STATIC_DEFS
              /* If this code is dead, then users must
                 explicitly declare static member variables
                 outside the class def'n as well.  */
              && TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type)
#endif
              )
            {
              DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
              make_decl_rtl (decl, asmspec, 1);
            }
            else
            rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, asmspec, toplev, at_eof);
          }
        else
          /* Just a constant field.  Should not need any rtl.  */
          goto finish_end0;
      }
      else
      rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, asmspec, toplev, at_eof);

      if (was_temp)
      resume_temporary_allocation ();

      if (type != error_mark_node
        && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)
        && CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (type))
      abstract_virtuals_error (decl, type);
      else if ((TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE
            || TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
             && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (TREE_TYPE (type))
             && CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (TREE_TYPE (type)))
      abstract_virtuals_error (decl, TREE_TYPE (type));

      if (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type) && IS_SIGNATURE (type))
      signature_error (decl, type);
      else if ((TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE
            || TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
             && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (TREE_TYPE (type))
             && IS_SIGNATURE (TREE_TYPE (type)))
      signature_error (decl, TREE_TYPE (type));

      if (TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
      ;
      else if (DECL_EXTERNAL (decl)
             && ! (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (decl)
                 && DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (decl)))
      {
        if (init)
          DECL_INITIAL (decl) = init;
      }
      else if (TREE_STATIC (decl) && type != error_mark_node)
      {
        /* Cleanups for static variables are handled by `finish_file'.  */
        if (TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type) || init != NULL_TREE
            || TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type))
          expand_static_init (decl, init);
      }
      else if (! toplev)
      {
        /* This is a declared decl which must live until the
           end of the binding contour.  It may need a cleanup.  */

        /* Recompute the RTL of a local array now
           if it used to be an incomplete type.  */
        if (was_incomplete && ! TREE_STATIC (decl))
          {
            /* If we used it already as memory, it must stay in memory.  */
            TREE_ADDRESSABLE (decl) = TREE_USED (decl);
            /* If it's still incomplete now, no init will save it.  */
            if (DECL_SIZE (decl) == NULL_TREE)
            DECL_INITIAL (decl) = NULL_TREE;
            expand_decl (decl);
          }
        else if (! TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (decl)
               && (TYPE_SIZE (type) != NULL_TREE
                   || TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE))
          {
            /* Do this here, because we did not expand this decl's
             rtl in start_decl.  */
            if (DECL_RTL (decl) == NULL_RTX)
            expand_decl (decl);
            else if (cleanup)
            {
              /* XXX: Why don't we use decl here?  */
              /* Ans: Because it was already expanded? */
              if (! expand_decl_cleanup (NULL_TREE, cleanup))
                cp_error ("parser lost in parsing declaration of `%D'",
                        decl);
              /* Cleanup used up here.  */
              cleanup = NULL_TREE;
            }
          }

        if (current_binding_level->is_for_scope)
          {
            struct binding_level *outer = current_binding_level->level_chain;

            /* Check to see if the same name is already bound at
             the outer level, either because it was directly declared,
             or because a dead for-decl got preserved.  In either case,
             the code would not have been valid under the ARM
             scope rules, so clear is_for_scope for the
             current_binding_level.

             Otherwise, we need to preserve the temp slot for decl
             to last into the outer binding level.  */

            int handling_dead_for_vars = 0;
            tree link = outer->names;
            for (; ; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
            {
              if (link == NULL && handling_dead_for_vars == 0)
                {
                  link = outer->dead_vars_from_for;
                  handling_dead_for_vars = 1;
                }
              if (link == NULL)
                {
                  if (DECL_IN_MEMORY_P (decl))
                  preserve_temp_slots (DECL_RTL (decl));
                  break;
                }
              if (DECL_NAME (link) == DECL_NAME (decl))
                {
                  if (handling_dead_for_vars)
                  {
                    tree shadowing
                      = purpose_member (DECL_NAME (decl),
                                    current_binding_level->shadowed);
                    if (shadowing && TREE_VALUE (shadowing) == link)
                      TREE_VALUE (shadowing)
                        = DECL_SHADOWED_FOR_VAR (link);
                  }
                  current_binding_level->is_for_scope = 0;
                  break;
                }
            }
          }

        expand_start_target_temps ();

        if (DECL_SIZE (decl) && type != error_mark_node)
          {
            /* Compute and store the initial value.  */
            expand_decl_init (decl);
                  already_used = TREE_USED (decl) || TREE_USED (type);

            if (init || TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type))
            {
              emit_line_note (DECL_SOURCE_FILE (decl),
                          DECL_SOURCE_LINE (decl));
              expand_aggr_init (decl, init, 0, flags);
            }

            /* Set this to 0 so we can tell whether an aggregate which
             was initialized was ever used.  Don't do this if it has a
             destructor, so we don't complain about the 'resource
             allocation is initialization' idiom.  */
            /* Now set attribute((unused)) on types so decls of
             that type will be marked used. (see TREE_USED, above.) 
             This avoids the warning problems this particular code
             tried to work around. */

            if (TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (type)
              && ! already_used
              && cleanup == NULL_TREE
              && DECL_NAME (decl))
            TREE_USED (decl) = 0;

            if (already_used)
            TREE_USED (decl) = 1;
          }

        /* Cleanup any temporaries needed for the initial value.  */
        expand_end_target_temps ();

        if (DECL_SIZE (decl) && type != error_mark_node)
          {
            /* Store the cleanup, if there was one.  */
            if (cleanup)
            {
              if (! expand_decl_cleanup (decl, cleanup))
                cp_error ("parser lost in parsing declaration of `%D'",
                        decl);
            }
          }
      }
    finish_end0:

      /* Undo call to `pushclass' that was done in `start_decl'
       due to initialization of qualified member variable.
       I.e., Foo::x = 10;  */
      {
      tree context = DECL_REAL_CONTEXT (decl);
      if (context
          && TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (context)) == 't'
          && (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL
            /* We also have a pushclass done that we need to undo here
               if we're at top level and declare a method.  */
            || TREE_CODE (decl) == FUNCTION_DECL)
          /* If size hasn't been set, we're still defining it,
             and therefore inside the class body; don't pop
             the binding level..  */
          && TYPE_SIZE (context) != NULL_TREE
          && context == current_class_type)
        popclass (1);
      }
    }

 finish_end:

  /* If requested, warn about definitions of large data objects.  */

  if (warn_larger_than
      && ! processing_template_decl
      && (TREE_CODE (decl) == VAR_DECL || TREE_CODE (decl) == PARM_DECL)
      && !DECL_EXTERNAL (decl))
    {
      register tree decl_size = DECL_SIZE (decl);

      if (decl_size && TREE_CODE (decl_size) == INTEGER_CST)
      {
        unsigned units = TREE_INT_CST_LOW (decl_size) / BITS_PER_UNIT;

        if (units > larger_than_size)
          warning_with_decl (decl, "size of `%s' is %u bytes", units);
      }
    }

  if (need_pop)
    {
      /* Resume permanent allocation, if not within a function.  */
      /* The corresponding push_obstacks_nochange is in start_decl,
       start_method, groktypename, and in grokfield.  */
      pop_obstacks ();
    }

  if (was_readonly)
    TREE_READONLY (decl) = 1;
}

/* This is here for a midend callback from c-common.c */

void
finish_decl (decl, init, asmspec_tree)
     tree decl, init;
     tree asmspec_tree;
{
  cp_finish_decl (decl, init, asmspec_tree, 1, 0);
}

void
expand_static_init (decl, init)
     tree decl;
     tree init;
{
  tree oldstatic = value_member (decl, static_aggregates);

  if (oldstatic)
    {
      if (TREE_PURPOSE (oldstatic) && init != NULL_TREE)
      cp_error ("multiple initializations given for `%D'", decl);
    }
  else if (! toplevel_bindings_p () && ! pseudo_global_level_p ())
    {
      /* Emit code to perform this initialization but once.  */
      tree temp;

      /* Remember this information until end of file.  */
      push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);

      /* Emit code to perform this initialization but once.  */
      temp = get_temp_name (integer_type_node, 1);
      rest_of_decl_compilation (temp, NULL_PTR, 0, 0);
      expand_start_cond (build_binary_op (EQ_EXPR, temp,
                                integer_zero_node, 1), 0);
      expand_start_target_temps ();

      expand_assignment (temp, integer_one_node, 0, 0);
      if (TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (TREE_TYPE (decl))
        || (init && TREE_CODE (init) == TREE_LIST))
      {
        expand_aggr_init (decl, init, 0, 0);
        do_pending_stack_adjust ();
      }
      else if (init)
      expand_assignment (decl, init, 0, 0);

      /* Cleanup any temporaries needed for the initial value.  */
      expand_end_target_temps ();

      if (TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (TREE_TYPE (decl)))
      {
        tree cleanup, fcall;
        static tree Atexit = 0;
        if (Atexit == 0)
          {
            tree atexit_fndecl, PFV, pfvlist;
            /* Remember this information until end of file.  */
            push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
            PFV = build_pointer_type (build_function_type
                              (void_type_node, void_list_node));

            pfvlist = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, PFV, void_list_node);

            push_lang_context (lang_name_c);
            atexit_fndecl
            = builtin_function ("atexit",
                            build_function_type (void_type_node,
                                           pfvlist),
                            NOT_BUILT_IN, NULL_PTR);
            assemble_external (atexit_fndecl);
            Atexit = default_conversion (atexit_fndecl);
            pop_lang_context ();
            pop_obstacks ();
          }
            
        cleanup = start_anon_func ();
        expand_expr_stmt (build_cleanup (decl));
        end_anon_func ();
        mark_addressable (cleanup);
        cleanup = build_unary_op (ADDR_EXPR, cleanup, 0);
        fcall = build_function_call (Atexit, expr_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, cleanup, NULL_TREE));
        expand_expr_stmt (fcall);
      }

      expand_end_cond ();
      if (TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (TREE_TYPE (decl)))
      {
        static_aggregates = perm_tree_cons (temp, decl, static_aggregates);
        TREE_STATIC (static_aggregates) = 1;
      }

      /* Resume old (possibly temporary) allocation.  */
      pop_obstacks ();
    }
  else
    {
      /* This code takes into account memory allocation
       policy of `start_decl'.  Namely, if TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING
       does not hold for this object, then we must make permanent
       the storage currently in the temporary obstack.  */
      if (! TYPE_NEEDS_CONSTRUCTING (TREE_TYPE (decl)))
      preserve_initializer ();
      static_aggregates = perm_tree_cons (init, decl, static_aggregates);
    }
}

/* Make TYPE a complete type based on INITIAL_VALUE.
   Return 0 if successful, 1 if INITIAL_VALUE can't be deciphered,
   2 if there was no information (in which case assume 1 if DO_DEFAULT).  */

int
complete_array_type (type, initial_value, do_default)
     tree type, initial_value;
     int do_default;
{
  register tree maxindex = NULL_TREE;
  int value = 0;

  if (initial_value)
    {
      /* Note MAXINDEX  is really the maximum index,
       one less than the size.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (initial_value) == STRING_CST)
      {
        int eltsize
          = int_size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (initial_value)));
        maxindex = build_int_2 ((TREE_STRING_LENGTH (initial_value)
                           / eltsize) - 1, 0);
      }
      else if (TREE_CODE (initial_value) == CONSTRUCTOR)
      {
        tree elts = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (initial_value);
        maxindex = size_binop (MINUS_EXPR, integer_zero_node, size_one_node);
        for (; elts; elts = TREE_CHAIN (elts))
          {
            if (TREE_PURPOSE (elts))
            maxindex = TREE_PURPOSE (elts);
            else
            maxindex = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR, maxindex, size_one_node);
          }
        maxindex = copy_node (maxindex);
      }
      else
      {
        /* Make an error message unless that happened already.  */
        if (initial_value != error_mark_node)
          value = 1;

        /* Prevent further error messages.  */
        maxindex = build_int_2 (0, 0);
      }
    }

  if (!maxindex)
    {
      if (do_default)
      maxindex = build_int_2 (0, 0);
      value = 2;
    }

  if (maxindex)
    {
      tree itype;

      TYPE_DOMAIN (type) = build_index_type (maxindex);
      if (! TREE_TYPE (maxindex))
      TREE_TYPE (maxindex) = TYPE_DOMAIN (type);
      if (initial_value)
        itype = TREE_TYPE (initial_value);
      else
      itype = NULL;
      if (itype && !TYPE_DOMAIN (itype))
      TYPE_DOMAIN (itype) = TYPE_DOMAIN (type);
      /* The type of the main variant should never be used for arrays
       of different sizes.  It should only ever be completed with the
       size of the array.  */
      if (! TYPE_DOMAIN (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)))
      TYPE_DOMAIN (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)) = TYPE_DOMAIN (type);
    }

  /* Lay out the type now that we can get the real answer.  */

  layout_type (type);

  return value;
}

/* Return zero if something is declared to be a member of type
   CTYPE when in the context of CUR_TYPE.  STRING is the error
   message to print in that case.  Otherwise, quietly return 1.  */

static int
member_function_or_else (ctype, cur_type, string)
     tree ctype, cur_type;
     char *string;
{
  if (ctype && ctype != cur_type)
    {
      error (string, TYPE_NAME_STRING (ctype));
      return 0;
    }
  return 1;
}

/* Subroutine of `grokdeclarator'.  */

/* Generate errors possibly applicable for a given set of specifiers.
   This is for ARM $7.1.2.  */

static void
bad_specifiers (object, type, virtualp, quals, inlinep, friendp, raises)
     tree object;
     char *type;
     int virtualp, quals, friendp, raises, inlinep;
{
  if (virtualp)
    cp_error ("`%D' declared as a `virtual' %s", object, type);
  if (inlinep)
    cp_error ("`%D' declared as an `inline' %s", object, type);
  if (quals)
    cp_error ("`const' and `volatile' function specifiers on `%D' invalid in %s declaration",
            object, type);
  if (friendp)
    cp_error_at ("invalid friend declaration", object);
  if (raises)
    cp_error_at ("invalid exception specifications", object);
}

/* CTYPE is class type, or null if non-class.
   TYPE is type this FUNCTION_DECL should have, either FUNCTION_TYPE
   or METHOD_TYPE.
   DECLARATOR is the function's name.
   VIRTUALP is truthvalue of whether the function is virtual or not.
   FLAGS are to be passed through to `grokclassfn'.
   QUALS are qualifiers indicating whether the function is `const'
   or `volatile'.
   RAISES is a list of exceptions that this function can raise.
   CHECK is 1 if we must find this method in CTYPE, 0 if we should
   not look, and -1 if we should not call `grokclassfn' at all.  */

static tree
grokfndecl (ctype, type, declarator, orig_declarator, virtualp, flags, quals,
          raises, attrlist, check, friendp, publicp, inlinep, funcdef_flag,
          template_count, in_namespace)
     tree ctype, type;
     tree declarator;
     tree orig_declarator;
     int virtualp;
     enum overload_flags flags;
     tree quals, raises, attrlist;
     int check, friendp, publicp, inlinep, funcdef_flag, template_count;
     tree in_namespace;
{
  tree cname, decl;
  int staticp = ctype && TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE;
  tree t;

  if (ctype)
    cname = TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (ctype)) == TYPE_DECL
      ? TYPE_IDENTIFIER (ctype) : TYPE_NAME (ctype);
  else
    cname = NULL_TREE;

  if (raises)
    {
      type = build_exception_variant (type, raises);
    }

  decl = build_lang_decl (FUNCTION_DECL, declarator, type);
  /* Propagate volatile out from type to decl. */
  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (type))
    TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (decl) = 1;

  /* This decl is not from the current namespace. */
  if (in_namespace)
    set_decl_namespace (decl, in_namespace);

  /* Should probably propagate const out from type to decl I bet (mrs).  */
  if (staticp)
    {
      DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl) = 1;
      DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = ctype;
    }

  if (ctype)
    DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (decl) = ctype;

  if (ctype == NULL_TREE && MAIN_NAME_P (declarator))
    {
      if (inlinep)
      error ("cannot declare `main' to be inline");
      else if (! publicp)
      error ("cannot declare `main' to be static");
      inlinep = 0;
      publicp = 1;
    }
        
  TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = publicp;
  if (! publicp)
    {
      DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (decl) = 1;
      DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (decl) = 1;
    }

  if (inlinep)
    DECL_THIS_INLINE (decl) = DECL_INLINE (decl) = 1;

  DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
  if (quals != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    {
      cp_error ("%smember function `%D' cannot have `%T' method qualifier",
            (ctype ? "static " : "non-"), decl, TREE_VALUE (quals));
      quals = NULL_TREE;
    }

  if (IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (DECL_NAME (decl)))
    grok_op_properties (decl, virtualp, check < 0);

  if (ctype && hack_decl_function_context (decl))
    DECL_NO_STATIC_CHAIN (decl) = 1;

  for (t = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (decl)); t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
    if (TREE_PURPOSE (t)
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_PURPOSE (t)) == DEFAULT_ARG)
      {
      add_defarg_fn (decl);
      break;
      }

  if (friendp
      && TREE_CODE (orig_declarator) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
    {
      if (funcdef_flag)
      cp_error
        ("defining explicit specialization `%D' in friend declaration",
         orig_declarator);
      else
      {
        /* A friend declaration of the form friend void f<>().  Record
           the information in the TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR.  */
        SET_DECL_IMPLICIT_INSTANTIATION (decl);
        DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (decl)
          = perm_tree_cons (TREE_OPERAND (orig_declarator, 0),
                        TREE_OPERAND (orig_declarator, 1),
                        NULL_TREE);
      }
    }

  /* Caller will do the rest of this.  */
  if (check < 0)
    return decl;

  if (check && funcdef_flag)
    DECL_INITIAL (decl) = error_mark_node;

  if (flags == NO_SPECIAL && ctype && constructor_name (cname) == declarator)
    {
      tree tmp;
      /* Just handle constructors here.  We could do this
       inside the following if stmt, but I think
       that the code is more legible by breaking this
       case out.  See comments below for what each of
       the following calls is supposed to do.  */
      DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (decl) = 1;

      grokclassfn (ctype, declarator, decl, flags, quals);

      decl = check_explicit_specialization (orig_declarator, decl,
                                  template_count, 
                                  2 * (funcdef_flag != 0) + 
                                  4 * (friendp != 0));

      if ((! TYPE_FOR_JAVA (ctype) || check_java_method (ctype, decl))
        && check)
      {
        tmp = check_classfn (ctype, decl);

        if (tmp && TREE_CODE (tmp) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
          tmp = DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT(tmp);

        if (tmp && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (tmp))
          cp_error ("definition of implicitly-declared `%D'", tmp);
        if (tmp && duplicate_decls (decl, tmp))
          return tmp;
      }
      if (! grok_ctor_properties (ctype, decl))
      return NULL_TREE;

      if (check == 0 && ! current_function_decl)
      {
        /* Assembler names live in the global namespace. */
        tmp = IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl));
        if (tmp == NULL_TREE)
          SET_IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl), decl);
        else if (TREE_CODE (tmp) != TREE_CODE (decl))
          cp_error ("inconsistent declarations for `%D'", decl);
        else
          {
            duplicate_decls (decl, tmp);
            decl = tmp;
          }
        make_decl_rtl (decl, NULL_PTR, 1);
      }
    }
  else
    {
      tree tmp;

      /* Function gets the ugly name, field gets the nice one.
       This call may change the type of the function (because
       of default parameters)!  */
      if (ctype != NULL_TREE)
      grokclassfn (ctype, cname, decl, flags, quals);

      decl = check_explicit_specialization (orig_declarator, decl,
                                  template_count, 
                                  2 * (funcdef_flag != 0) + 
                                  4 * (friendp != 0));
      if (ctype != NULL_TREE
        && (! TYPE_FOR_JAVA (ctype) || check_java_method (ctype, decl))
        && check)
      {
        tmp = check_classfn (ctype, decl);

        if (tmp && TREE_CODE (tmp) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
          tmp = DECL_TEMPLATE_RESULT (tmp);
            
        if (tmp && DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (tmp)
            && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == METHOD_TYPE)
          {
            /* Remove the `this' parm added by grokclassfn.
               XXX Isn't this done in start_function, too?  */
            revert_static_member_fn (&decl, NULL, NULL);
            last_function_parms = TREE_CHAIN (last_function_parms);
          }
        if (tmp && DECL_ARTIFICIAL (tmp))
          cp_error ("definition of implicitly-declared `%D'", tmp);
        if (tmp)
          {
            if (!duplicate_decls (decl, tmp))
            my_friendly_abort (892);
            return tmp;
          }
      }

      if (ctype == NULL_TREE || check)
      return decl;

      /* Now install the declaration of this function so that others may
       find it (esp. its DECL_FRIENDLIST).  Don't do this for local class
       methods, though.  */
      if (! current_function_decl)
      {
        if (!DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (decl))
          {
            /* We don't do this for specializations since the
             equivalent checks will be done later.  Also, at this
             point the DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME is not yet fully
             accurate.  */

            /* FIXME: this should only need to look at
             IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE.  */
            tmp = lookup_name (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl), 0);
            if (tmp == NULL_TREE)
            SET_IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl), decl);
            else if (TREE_CODE (tmp) != TREE_CODE (decl))
            cp_error ("inconsistent declarations for `%D'", decl);
            else
            {
              duplicate_decls (decl, tmp);
              decl = tmp;
            }
          }

        if (attrlist)
          cplus_decl_attributes (decl, TREE_PURPOSE (attrlist),
                           TREE_VALUE (attrlist));
        make_decl_rtl (decl, NULL_PTR, 1);
      }
      if (virtualp)
      {
        DECL_VIRTUAL_P (decl) = 1;
        if (DECL_VINDEX (decl) == NULL_TREE)
          DECL_VINDEX (decl) = error_mark_node;
        IDENTIFIER_VIRTUAL_P (DECL_NAME (decl)) = 1;
      }
    }
  return decl;
}

static tree
grokvardecl (type, declarator, specbits_in, initialized, constp, in_namespace)
     tree type;
     tree declarator;
     RID_BIT_TYPE *specbits_in;
     int initialized;
     int constp;
     tree in_namespace;
{
  tree decl;
  RID_BIT_TYPE specbits;

  specbits = *specbits_in;

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE)
    {
      /* If you declare a static member so that it
       can be initialized, the code will reach here.  */
      tree basetype = TYPE_OFFSET_BASETYPE (type);
      type = TREE_TYPE (type);
      decl = build_lang_field_decl (VAR_DECL, declarator, type);
      DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = basetype;
      DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (decl) = basetype;
      DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = build_static_name (basetype, declarator);
    }
  else
    {
      tree context = in_namespace ? in_namespace : current_namespace;
      decl = build_decl (VAR_DECL, declarator, complete_type (type));
      if (context != global_namespace && namespace_bindings_p ()
        && current_lang_name != lang_name_c)
      DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) =  build_static_name (context,
                                           declarator);
    }

  if (in_namespace)
    set_decl_namespace (decl, in_namespace);

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits))
    {
      DECL_THIS_EXTERN (decl) = 1;
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = !initialized;
    }

  /* In class context, static means one per class,
     public access, and static storage.  */
  if (DECL_CLASS_SCOPE_P (decl))
    {
      TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = 1;
      TREE_STATIC (decl) = 1;
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 0;
    }
  /* At top level, either `static' or no s.c. makes a definition
     (perhaps tentative), and absence of `static' makes it public.  */
  else if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    {
      TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = (RIDBIT_NOTSETP (RID_STATIC, specbits)
                      && (DECL_THIS_EXTERN (decl) || ! constp));
      TREE_STATIC (decl) = ! DECL_EXTERNAL (decl);
    }
  /* Not at top level, only `static' makes a static definition.  */
  else
    {
      TREE_STATIC (decl) = !! RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits);
      TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = DECL_EXTERNAL (decl);
    }
  return decl;
}

/* Create a canonical pointer to member function type.  */

tree
build_ptrmemfunc_type (type)
     tree type;
{
  tree fields[4];
  tree t;
  tree u;

  /* If a canonical type already exists for this type, use it.  We use
     this method instead of type_hash_canon, because it only does a
     simple equality check on the list of field members.  */

  if ((t = TYPE_GET_PTRMEMFUNC_TYPE (type)))
    return t;

  push_obstacks (TYPE_OBSTACK (type), TYPE_OBSTACK (type));

  u = make_lang_type (UNION_TYPE);
  IS_AGGR_TYPE (u) = 0;
  fields[0] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, pfn_identifier, type);
  fields[1] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, delta2_identifier,
                             delta_type_node);
  finish_builtin_type (u, "__ptrmemfunc_type", fields, 1, ptr_type_node);
  TYPE_NAME (u) = NULL_TREE;

  t = make_lang_type (RECORD_TYPE);

  /* Let the front-end know this is a pointer to member function...  */
  TYPE_PTRMEMFUNC_FLAG (t) = 1;
  /* ... and not really an aggregate.  */
  IS_AGGR_TYPE (t) = 0;

  fields[0] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, delta_identifier,
                             delta_type_node);
  fields[1] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, index_identifier,
                             delta_type_node);
  fields[2] = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, pfn_or_delta2_identifier, u);
  finish_builtin_type (t, "__ptrmemfunc_type", fields, 2, ptr_type_node);

  pop_obstacks ();

  /* Zap out the name so that the back-end will give us the debugging
     information for this anonymous RECORD_TYPE.  */
  TYPE_NAME (t) = NULL_TREE;

  TYPE_SET_PTRMEMFUNC_TYPE (type, t);

  /* Seems to be wanted.  */
  CLASSTYPE_GOT_SEMICOLON (t) = 1;
  return t;
}

/* Given declspecs and a declarator,
   determine the name and type of the object declared
   and construct a ..._DECL node for it.
   (In one case we can return a ..._TYPE node instead.
    For invalid input we sometimes return 0.)

   DECLSPECS is a chain of tree_list nodes whose value fields
    are the storage classes and type specifiers.

   DECL_CONTEXT says which syntactic context this declaration is in:
     NORMAL for most contexts.  Make a VAR_DECL or FUNCTION_DECL or TYPE_DECL.
     FUNCDEF for a function definition.  Like NORMAL but a few different
      error messages in each case.  Return value may be zero meaning
      this definition is too screwy to try to parse.
     MEMFUNCDEF for a function definition.  Like FUNCDEF but prepares to
      handle member functions (which have FIELD context).
      Return value may be zero meaning this definition is too screwy to
      try to parse.
     PARM for a parameter declaration (either within a function prototype
      or before a function body).  Make a PARM_DECL, or return void_type_node.
     CATCHPARM for a parameter declaration before a catch clause.
     TYPENAME if for a typename (in a cast or sizeof).
      Don't make a DECL node; just return the ..._TYPE node.
     FIELD for a struct or union field; make a FIELD_DECL.
     BITFIELD for a field with specified width.
   INITIALIZED is 1 if the decl has an initializer.

   In the TYPENAME case, DECLARATOR is really an absolute declarator.
   It may also be so in the PARM case, for a prototype where the
   argument type is specified but not the name.

   This function is where the complicated C meanings of `static'
   and `extern' are interpreted.

   For C++, if there is any monkey business to do, the function which
   calls this one must do it, i.e., prepending instance variables,
   renaming overloaded function names, etc.

   Note that for this C++, it is an error to define a method within a class
   which does not belong to that class.

   Except in the case where SCOPE_REFs are implicitly known (such as
   methods within a class being redundantly qualified),
   declarations which involve SCOPE_REFs are returned as SCOPE_REFs
   (class_name::decl_name).  The caller must also deal with this.

   If a constructor or destructor is seen, and the context is FIELD,
   then the type gains the attribute TREE_HAS_x.  If such a declaration
   is erroneous, NULL_TREE is returned.

   QUALS is used only for FUNCDEF and MEMFUNCDEF cases.  For a member
   function, these are the qualifiers to give to the `this' pointer.

   May return void_type_node if the declarator turned out to be a friend.
   See grokfield for details.  */

enum return_types { return_normal, return_ctor, return_dtor, return_conversion };

tree
grokdeclarator (declarator, declspecs, decl_context, initialized, attrlist)
     tree declspecs;
     tree declarator;
     enum decl_context decl_context;
     int initialized;
     tree attrlist;
{
  RID_BIT_TYPE specbits;
  int nclasses = 0;
  tree spec;
  tree type = NULL_TREE;
  int longlong = 0;
  int constp;
  int volatilep;
  int virtualp, explicitp, friendp, inlinep, staticp;
  int explicit_int = 0;
  int explicit_char = 0;
  int defaulted_int = 0;
  int opaque_typedef = 0;
  tree typedef_decl = NULL_TREE;
  char *name;
  tree typedef_type = NULL_TREE;
  int funcdef_flag = 0;
  enum tree_code innermost_code = ERROR_MARK;
  int bitfield = 0;
#if 0
  /* See the code below that used this.  */
  tree decl_machine_attr = NULL_TREE;
#endif
  /* Set this to error_mark_node for FIELD_DECLs we could not handle properly.
     All FIELD_DECLs we build here have `init' put into their DECL_INITIAL.  */
  tree init = NULL_TREE;

  /* Keep track of what sort of function is being processed
     so that we can warn about default return values, or explicit
     return values which do not match prescribed defaults.  */
  enum return_types return_type = return_normal;

  tree dname = NULL_TREE;
  tree ctype = current_class_type;
  tree ctor_return_type = NULL_TREE;
  enum overload_flags flags = NO_SPECIAL;
  tree quals = NULL_TREE;
  tree raises = NULL_TREE;
  int template_count = 0;
  tree in_namespace = NULL_TREE;

  RIDBIT_RESET_ALL (specbits);
  if (decl_context == FUNCDEF)
    funcdef_flag = 1, decl_context = NORMAL;
  else if (decl_context == MEMFUNCDEF)
    funcdef_flag = -1, decl_context = FIELD;
  else if (decl_context == BITFIELD)
    bitfield = 1, decl_context = FIELD;

  /* Look inside a declarator for the name being declared
     and get it as a string, for an error message.  */
  {
    tree *next = &declarator;
    register tree decl;
    name = NULL;

    while (next && *next)
      {
      decl = *next;
      switch (TREE_CODE (decl))
        {
        case COND_EXPR:
          ctype = NULL_TREE;
          next = &TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
          break;

        case BIT_NOT_EXPR:    /* For C++ destructors!  */
          {
            tree name = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
            tree rename = NULL_TREE;

            my_friendly_assert (flags == NO_SPECIAL, 152);
            flags = DTOR_FLAG;
            return_type = return_dtor;
            if (TREE_CODE (name) == TYPE_DECL)
            TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = name = constructor_name (name);
            my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (name) == IDENTIFIER_NODE, 153);
            if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
            {
              if (current_class_type == NULL_TREE)
                {
                  error ("destructors must be member functions");
                  flags = NO_SPECIAL;
                }
              else
                {
                  tree t = constructor_name (current_class_name);
                  if (t != name)
                  rename = t;
                }
            }
            else
            {
              tree t = constructor_name (ctype);
              if (t != name)
                rename = t;
            }

            if (rename)
            {
              cp_error ("destructor `%T' must match class name `%T'",
                      name, rename);
              TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = rename;
            }
            next = &name;
          }
          break;

        case ADDR_EXPR: /* C++ reference declaration */
          /* Fall through. */
        case ARRAY_REF:
        case INDIRECT_REF:
          ctype = NULL_TREE;
          innermost_code = TREE_CODE (decl);
          next = &TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
          break;

        case CALL_EXPR:
          if (parmlist_is_exprlist (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1)))
            {
            /* This is actually a variable declaration using constructor
               syntax.  We need to call start_decl and cp_finish_decl so we
               can get the variable initialized...  */

            *next = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
            init = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1);

            decl = start_decl (declarator, declspecs, 1, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
            /* Look for __unused__ attribute */
            if (TREE_USED (TREE_TYPE (decl)))
              TREE_USED (decl) = 1;
            finish_decl (decl, init, NULL_TREE);
            return 0;
            }
          innermost_code = TREE_CODE (decl);
          if (decl_context == FIELD && ctype == NULL_TREE)
            ctype = current_class_type;
          if (ctype
            && TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0)
            && (TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0)) == TYPE_DECL
                && ((DECL_NAME (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0))
                   == constructor_name_full (ctype))
                  || (DECL_NAME (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0))
                      == constructor_name (ctype)))))
            TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = constructor_name (ctype);
          next = &TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
          decl = *next;
          if (ctype != NULL_TREE
            && decl != NULL_TREE && flags != DTOR_FLAG
            && decl == constructor_name (ctype))
            {
            return_type = return_ctor;
            ctor_return_type = ctype;
            }
          ctype = NULL_TREE;
          break;
          
        case TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR:
            {
            tree fns = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);

            if (TREE_CODE (fns) == LOOKUP_EXPR)
              fns = TREE_OPERAND (fns, 0);

            if (TREE_CODE (fns) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
              dname = fns;
            else if (is_overloaded_fn (fns))
              dname = DECL_NAME (get_first_fn (fns));
            else
              my_friendly_abort (0);
            }
        /* Fall through. */

        case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
          if (TREE_CODE (decl) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
            dname = decl;

          next = 0;

          if (is_rid (dname))
            {
            cp_error ("declarator-id missing; using reserved word `%D'",
                    dname);
            name = IDENTIFIER_POINTER (dname);
            }
          if (! IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (dname)
            /* GNU/Linux headers use '__op'.  Arrgh.  */
            || (IDENTIFIER_TYPENAME_P (dname) && ! TREE_TYPE (dname)))
            name = IDENTIFIER_POINTER (dname);
          else
            {
            if (IDENTIFIER_TYPENAME_P (dname))
              {
                my_friendly_assert (flags == NO_SPECIAL, 154);
                flags = TYPENAME_FLAG;
                ctor_return_type = TREE_TYPE (dname);
                return_type = return_conversion;
              }
            name = operator_name_string (dname);
            }
          break;

          /* C++ extension */
        case SCOPE_REF:
          {
            /* Perform error checking, and decide on a ctype.  */
            tree cname = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
            if (cname == NULL_TREE)
            ctype = NULL_TREE;
            else if (TREE_CODE (cname) == NAMESPACE_DECL)
            {
              ctype = NULL_TREE;
              in_namespace = TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
              TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = NULL_TREE;
            }
            else if (! is_aggr_type (cname, 1))
            TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = NULL_TREE;
            /* Must test TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1), in case user gives
             us `typedef (class::memfunc)(int); memfunc *memfuncptr;'  */
            else if (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1)
                   && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1)) == INDIRECT_REF)
            ctype = cname;
            else if (TREE_CODE (cname) == TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
                   || TREE_CODE (cname) == TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM)
            {
              cp_error ("`%T::%D' is not a valid declarator", cname,
                      TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1));
              cp_error ("  perhaps you want `typename %T::%D' to make it a type",
                      cname, TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1));
              return void_type_node;
            }
            else if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
            ctype = cname;
            else if (TREE_COMPLEXITY (decl) == current_class_depth)
            TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = ctype;
            else
            {
              if (! UNIQUELY_DERIVED_FROM_P (cname, ctype))
                {
                  cp_error ("type `%T' is not derived from type `%T'",
                        cname, ctype);
                  TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = NULL_TREE;
                }
              else
                ctype = cname;
            }

            if (ctype && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1)) == TYPE_DECL
              && ((DECL_NAME (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1))
                   == constructor_name_full (ctype))
                  || (DECL_NAME (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1))
                    == constructor_name (ctype))))
            TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1) = constructor_name (ctype);
            next = &TREE_OPERAND (decl, 1);
            decl = *next;
            if (ctype)
            {
              if (TREE_CODE (decl) == IDENTIFIER_NODE
                  && constructor_name (ctype) == decl)
                {
                  return_type = return_ctor;
                  ctor_return_type = ctype;
                }
              else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == BIT_NOT_EXPR
                     && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0)) == IDENTIFIER_NODE
                     && (constructor_name (ctype) == TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0)
                         || constructor_name_full (ctype) == TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0)))
                {
                  return_type = return_dtor;
                  ctor_return_type = ctype;
                  flags = DTOR_FLAG;
                  TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0) = constructor_name (ctype);
                  next = &TREE_OPERAND (decl, 0);
                }
            }
          }
          break;

        case ERROR_MARK:
          next = 0;
          break;

        case TYPE_DECL:
          /* Parse error puts this typespec where
             a declarator should go.  */
          cp_error ("`%T' specified as declarator-id", DECL_NAME (decl));
          if (TREE_TYPE (decl) == current_class_type)
            cp_error ("  perhaps you want `%T' for a constructor",
                  current_class_name);
          dname = DECL_NAME (decl);
          name = IDENTIFIER_POINTER (dname);

          /* Avoid giving two errors for this.  */
          IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (dname) = NULL_TREE;

          declspecs = temp_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, integer_type_node,
                              declspecs);
          *next = dname;
          next = 0;
          break;

        default:
          cp_compiler_error ("`%D' as declarator", decl);
          return 0; /* We used to do a 155 abort here.  */
        }
      }
    if (name == NULL)
      name = "type name";
  }

  /* A function definition's declarator must have the form of
     a function declarator.  */

  if (funcdef_flag && innermost_code != CALL_EXPR)
    return 0;

  if (((dname && IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (dname)) || flags == TYPENAME_FLAG)
      && innermost_code != CALL_EXPR
      && ! (ctype && declspecs == NULL_TREE))
    {
      cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as non-function", dname);
      return void_type_node;
    }

  /* Anything declared one level down from the top level
     must be one of the parameters of a function
     (because the body is at least two levels down).  */

  /* This heuristic cannot be applied to C++ nodes! Fixed, however,
     by not allowing C++ class definitions to specify their parameters
     with xdecls (must be spec.d in the parmlist).

     Since we now wait to push a class scope until we are sure that
     we are in a legitimate method context, we must set oldcname
     explicitly (since current_class_name is not yet alive).

     We also want to avoid calling this a PARM if it is in a namespace.  */

  if (decl_context == NORMAL && ! namespace_bindings_p ()
      && ! pseudo_global_level_p ())
    {
      struct binding_level *b = current_binding_level;
      current_binding_level = b->level_chain;
      if (current_binding_level != 0 && toplevel_bindings_p ())
      decl_context = PARM;
      current_binding_level = b;
    }

  /* Look through the decl specs and record which ones appear.
     Some typespecs are defined as built-in typenames.
     Others, the ones that are modifiers of other types,
     are represented by bits in SPECBITS: set the bits for
     the modifiers that appear.  Storage class keywords are also in SPECBITS.

     If there is a typedef name or a type, store the type in TYPE.
     This includes builtin typedefs such as `int'.

     Set EXPLICIT_INT if the type is `int' or `char' and did not
     come from a user typedef.

     Set LONGLONG if `long' is mentioned twice.

     For C++, constructors and destructors have their own fast treatment.  */

  for (spec = declspecs; spec; spec = TREE_CHAIN (spec))
    {
      register int i;
      register tree id;

      /* Certain parse errors slip through.  For example,
       `int class;' is not caught by the parser. Try
       weakly to recover here.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (spec) != TREE_LIST)
      return 0;

      id = TREE_VALUE (spec);

      if (TREE_CODE (id) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
      {
        if (id == ridpointers[(int) RID_INT]
            || id == ridpointers[(int) RID_CHAR]
            || id == ridpointers[(int) RID_BOOL]
            || id == ridpointers[(int) RID_WCHAR])
          {
            if (type)
            {
              if (id == ridpointers[(int) RID_BOOL])
                error ("`bool' is now a keyword");
              else
                cp_error ("extraneous `%T' ignored", id);
            }
            else
            {
              if (id == ridpointers[(int) RID_INT])
                explicit_int = 1;
              else if (id == ridpointers[(int) RID_CHAR])
                explicit_char = 1;
              type = TREE_TYPE (IDENTIFIER_GLOBAL_VALUE (id));
            }
            goto found;
          }
        /* C++ aggregate types.  */
        if (IDENTIFIER_HAS_TYPE_VALUE (id))
          {
            if (type)
            cp_error ("multiple declarations `%T' and `%T'", type, id);
            else
            type = IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (id);
            goto found;
          }

        for (i = (int) RID_FIRST_MODIFIER; i <= (int) RID_LAST_MODIFIER; i++)
          {
            if (ridpointers[i] == id)
            {
              if (i == (int) RID_LONG && RIDBIT_SETP (i, specbits))
                {
                  if (pedantic && ! in_system_header && warn_long_long)
                  pedwarn ("ANSI C++ does not support `long long'");
                  if (longlong)
                  error ("`long long long' is too long for GCC");
                  else
                  longlong = 1;
                }
              else if (RIDBIT_SETP (i, specbits))
                pedwarn ("duplicate `%s'", IDENTIFIER_POINTER (id));
              RIDBIT_SET (i, specbits);
              goto found;
            }
          }
      }
      /* C++ aggregate types.  */
      else if (TREE_CODE (id) == TYPE_DECL || TREE_CODE (id) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
      {
        if (type)
          cp_error ("multiple declarations `%T' and `%T'", type,
                  TREE_TYPE (id));
        else
          {
            type = TREE_TYPE (id);
            TREE_VALUE (spec) = type;
          }
        goto found;
      }
      if (type)
      error ("two or more data types in declaration of `%s'", name);
      else if (TREE_CODE (id) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
      {
        register tree t = lookup_name (id, 1);
        if (!t || TREE_CODE (t) != TYPE_DECL)
          error ("`%s' fails to be a typedef or built in type",
               IDENTIFIER_POINTER (id));
        else
          {
            type = TREE_TYPE (t);
#if 0
            /* See the code below that used this.  */
            decl_machine_attr = DECL_MACHINE_ATTRIBUTES (id);
#endif
            typedef_decl = t;
          }
      }
      else if (id != error_mark_node)
      /* Can't change CLASS nodes into RECORD nodes here!  */
      type = id;

    found: ;
    }

  typedef_type = type;

  /* No type at all: default to `int', and set DEFAULTED_INT
     because it was not a user-defined typedef.
     Except when we have a `typedef' inside a signature, in
     which case the type defaults to `unknown type' and is
     instantiated when assigning to a signature pointer or ref.  */

  if (type == NULL_TREE
      && (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
        || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits)
        || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
        || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits)))
    {
      /* These imply 'int'.  */
      type = integer_type_node;
      defaulted_int = 1;
    }

  if (type == NULL_TREE)
    {
      explicit_int = -1;
      if (return_type == return_dtor)
      type = void_type_node;
      else if (return_type == return_ctor)
      type = build_pointer_type (ctor_return_type);
      else if (return_type == return_conversion)
      type = ctor_return_type;
      else if (current_class_type
             && IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type)
             && RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits)
             && (decl_context == FIELD || decl_context == NORMAL))
      {
        explicit_int = 0;
        opaque_typedef = 1;
        type = copy_node (opaque_type_node);
      }
      else
      {
        if (funcdef_flag)
          {
            if (warn_return_type
              && return_type == return_normal)
            /* Save warning until we know what is really going on.  */
            warn_about_return_type = 1;
          }
        else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits))
          pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids typedef which does not specify a type");
        else if (innermost_code != CALL_EXPR || pedantic
               || (warn_return_type && return_type == return_normal))
          {
            if (innermost_code == CALL_EXPR)
            cp_pedwarn ("return-type of `%D' defaults to `int'", dname);
            else
            cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids declaration `%D' with no type",
                      dname);
          }
        type = integer_type_node;
      }
    }
  else if (return_type == return_dtor)
    {
      error ("return type specification for destructor invalid");
      type = void_type_node;
    }
  else if (return_type == return_ctor)
    {
      error ("return type specification for constructor invalid");
      type = build_pointer_type (ctor_return_type);
    }
  else if (return_type == return_conversion)
    {
      if (comptypes (type, ctor_return_type, 1) == 0)
      cp_error ("operator `%T' declared to return `%T'",
              ctor_return_type, type);
      else
      cp_pedwarn ("return type specified for `operator %T'",
                ctor_return_type);

      type = ctor_return_type;
    }

  ctype = NULL_TREE;

  /* Now process the modifiers that were specified
     and check for invalid combinations.  */

  /* Long double is a special combination.  */

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
      && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type) == double_type_node)
    {
      RIDBIT_RESET (RID_LONG, specbits);
      type = build_type_variant (long_double_type_node, TYPE_READONLY (type),
                         TYPE_VOLATILE (type));
    }

  /* Check all other uses of type modifiers.  */

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits)
      || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
      || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
      || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
    {
      int ok = 0;

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == REAL_TYPE)
      error ("short, signed or unsigned invalid for `%s'", name);
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) != INTEGER_TYPE)
      error ("long, short, signed or unsigned invalid for `%s'", name);
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
             && RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
      error ("long and short specified together for `%s'", name);
      else if ((RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
             && explicit_char)
      error ("long or short specified with char for `%s'", name);
      else if ((RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
             && TREE_CODE (type) == REAL_TYPE)
      error ("long or short specified with floating type for `%s'", name);
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
             && RIDBIT_SETP (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits))
      error ("signed and unsigned given together for `%s'", name);
      else
      {
        ok = 1;
        if (!explicit_int && !defaulted_int && !explicit_char && pedantic)
          {
            pedwarn ("long, short, signed or unsigned used invalidly for `%s'",
                   name);
            if (flag_pedantic_errors)
            ok = 0;
          }
      }

      /* Discard the type modifiers if they are invalid.  */
      if (! ok)
      {
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_SIGNED, specbits);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_LONG, specbits);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_SHORT, specbits);
        longlong = 0;
      }
    }

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_COMPLEX, specbits)
      && TREE_CODE (type) != INTEGER_TYPE && TREE_CODE (type) != REAL_TYPE)
    {
      error ("complex invalid for `%s'", name);
      RIDBIT_RESET (RID_COMPLEX, specbits);
    }

  /* Decide whether an integer type is signed or not.
     Optionally treat bitfields as signed by default.  */
  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits)
      || (bitfield && ! flag_signed_bitfields
        && (explicit_int || defaulted_int || explicit_char
            /* A typedef for plain `int' without `signed'
             can be controlled just like plain `int'.  */
            || ! (typedef_decl != NULL_TREE
                && C_TYPEDEF_EXPLICITLY_SIGNED (typedef_decl)))
        && TREE_CODE (type) != ENUMERAL_TYPE
        && RIDBIT_NOTSETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)))
    {
      if (longlong)
      type = long_long_unsigned_type_node;
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits))
      type = long_unsigned_type_node;
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
      type = short_unsigned_type_node;
      else if (type == char_type_node)
      type = unsigned_char_type_node;
      else if (typedef_decl)
      type = unsigned_type (type);
      else
      type = unsigned_type_node;
    }
  else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
         && type == char_type_node)
    type = signed_char_type_node;
  else if (longlong)
    type = long_long_integer_type_node;
  else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits))
    type = long_integer_type_node;
  else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits))
    type = short_integer_type_node;

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_COMPLEX, specbits))
    {
      /* If we just have "complex", it is equivalent to
       "complex double", but if any modifiers at all are specified it is
       the complex form of TYPE.  E.g, "complex short" is
       "complex short int".  */

      if (defaulted_int && ! longlong
        && ! (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_LONG, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SHORT, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_UNSIGNED, specbits)))
      type = complex_double_type_node;
      else if (type == integer_type_node)
      type = complex_integer_type_node;
      else if (type == float_type_node)
      type = complex_float_type_node;
      else if (type == double_type_node)
      type = complex_double_type_node;
      else if (type == long_double_type_node)
      type = complex_long_double_type_node;
      else
      type = build_complex_type (type);
    }

  if (return_type == return_conversion 
      && (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_CONST, specbits)
        || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_VOLATILE, specbits)))
    cp_error ("`operator %T' cannot be cv-qualified",
            ctor_return_type);

  /* Set CONSTP if this declaration is `const', whether by
     explicit specification or via a typedef.
     Likewise for VOLATILEP.  */

  constp = !! RIDBIT_SETP (RID_CONST, specbits) + TYPE_READONLY (type);
  volatilep = !! RIDBIT_SETP (RID_VOLATILE, specbits) + TYPE_VOLATILE (type);
  type = build_type_variant (type, 0, 0);
  staticp = 0;
  inlinep = !! RIDBIT_SETP (RID_INLINE, specbits);
  virtualp = RIDBIT_SETP (RID_VIRTUAL, specbits);
  RIDBIT_RESET (RID_VIRTUAL, specbits);
  explicitp = RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXPLICIT, specbits) != 0;
  RIDBIT_RESET (RID_EXPLICIT, specbits);

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits))
    staticp = 1 + (decl_context == FIELD);

  if (virtualp && staticp == 2)
    {
      cp_error ("member `%D' cannot be declared both virtual and static",
            dname);
      staticp = 0;
    }
  friendp = RIDBIT_SETP (RID_FRIEND, specbits);
  RIDBIT_RESET (RID_FRIEND, specbits);

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
    {
      if (decl_context == PARM)
      {
        error ("non-member `%s' cannot be declared `mutable'", name);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
      }
      else if (friendp || decl_context == TYPENAME)
      {
        error ("non-object member `%s' cannot be declared `mutable'", name);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
      }
    }

  /* Warn if two storage classes are given. Default to `auto'.  */

  if (RIDBIT_ANY_SET (specbits))
    {
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits)) nclasses++;
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits)) nclasses++;
      if (decl_context == PARM && nclasses > 0)
      error ("storage class specifiers invalid in parameter declarations");
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits))
      {
        if (decl_context == PARM)
          error ("typedef declaration invalid in parameter declaration");
        nclasses++;
      }
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_AUTO, specbits)) nclasses++;
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits)) nclasses++;
    }

  /* Give error if `virtual' is used outside of class declaration.  */
  if (virtualp
      && (current_class_name == NULL_TREE || decl_context != FIELD))
    {
      error ("virtual outside class declaration");
      virtualp = 0;
    }
  if (current_class_name == NULL_TREE && RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
    {
      error ("only members can be declared mutable");
      RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
    }

  /* Static anonymous unions are dealt with here.  */
  if (staticp && decl_context == TYPENAME
      && TREE_CODE (declspecs) == TREE_LIST
      && ANON_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_VALUE (declspecs)))
    decl_context = FIELD;

  /* Give error if `const,' `volatile,' `inline,' `friend,' or `virtual'
     is used in a signature member function declaration.  */
  if (decl_context == FIELD
      && IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type)
      && RIDBIT_NOTSETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits))
    {
      if (constp)
      {
        error ("`const' specified for signature member function `%s'", name);
        constp = 0;
      }
      if (volatilep)
      {
        error ("`volatile' specified for signature member function `%s'",
             name);
        volatilep = 0;
      }
      if (inlinep)
      {
        error ("`inline' specified for signature member function `%s'", name);
        /* Later, we'll make signature member functions inline.  */
        inlinep = 0;
      }
      if (friendp)
      {
        error ("`friend' declaration in signature definition");
        friendp = 0;
      }
      if (virtualp)
      {
        error ("`virtual' specified for signature member function `%s'",
             name);
        /* Later, we'll make signature member functions virtual.  */
        virtualp = 0;
      }
    }

  /* Warn about storage classes that are invalid for certain
     kinds of declarations (parameters, typenames, etc.).  */

  if (nclasses > 1)
    error ("multiple storage classes in declaration of `%s'", name);
  else if (decl_context != NORMAL && nclasses > 0)
    {
      if ((decl_context == PARM || decl_context == CATCHPARM)
        && (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_AUTO, specbits)))
      ;
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits))
      ;
      else if (decl_context == FIELD
             && ! IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type)
             /* C++ allows static class elements  */
             && RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits))
      /* C++ also allows inlines and signed and unsigned elements,
         but in those cases we don't come in here.  */
      ;
      else
      {
        if (decl_context == FIELD)
          {
            tree tmp = NULL_TREE;
            register int op = 0;

            if (declarator)
            {
              /* Avoid trying to get an operand off an identifier node.  */ 
              if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
                tmp = declarator;
              else
                tmp = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
              op = IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (tmp);
            }
            error ("storage class specified for %s `%s'",
                 IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type)
                 ? (op
                  ? "signature member operator"
                  : "signature member function")
                 : (op ? "member operator" : "field"),
                 op ? operator_name_string (tmp) : name);
          }
        else
          error (((decl_context == PARM || decl_context == CATCHPARM)
                ? "storage class specified for parameter `%s'"
                : "storage class specified for typename"), name);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_REGISTER, specbits);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_AUTO, specbits);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_EXTERN, specbits);

        if (decl_context == FIELD && IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type))
          {
            RIDBIT_RESET (RID_STATIC, specbits);
            staticp = 0;
          }
      }
    }
  else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits) && initialized && !funcdef_flag)
    {
      if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
      {
        /* It's common practice (and completely valid) to have a const
           be initialized and declared extern.  */
        if (! constp)
          warning ("`%s' initialized and declared `extern'", name);
      }
      else
      error ("`%s' has both `extern' and initializer", name);
    }
  else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits) && funcdef_flag
         && ! toplevel_bindings_p ())
    error ("nested function `%s' declared `extern'", name);
  else if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    {
      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_AUTO, specbits))
      error ("top-level declaration of `%s' specifies `auto'", name);
    }

  if (nclasses > 0 && friendp)
    error ("storage class specifiers invalid in friend function declarations");

  /* Now figure out the structure of the declarator proper.
     Descend through it, creating more complex types, until we reach
     the declared identifier (or NULL_TREE, in an absolute declarator).  */

  while (declarator && TREE_CODE (declarator) != IDENTIFIER_NODE
       && TREE_CODE (declarator) != TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
    {
      /* Each level of DECLARATOR is either an ARRAY_REF (for ...[..]),
       an INDIRECT_REF (for *...),
       a CALL_EXPR (for ...(...)),
       an identifier (for the name being declared)
       or a null pointer (for the place in an absolute declarator
       where the name was omitted).
       For the last two cases, we have just exited the loop.

       For C++ it could also be
       a SCOPE_REF (for class :: ...).  In this case, we have converted
       sensible names to types, and those are the values we use to
       qualify the member name.
       an ADDR_EXPR (for &...),
       a BIT_NOT_EXPR (for destructors)

       At this point, TYPE is the type of elements of an array,
       or for a function to return, or for a pointer to point to.
       After this sequence of ifs, TYPE is the type of the
       array or function or pointer, and DECLARATOR has had its
       outermost layer removed.  */

      if (type == error_mark_node)
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == SCOPE_REF)
          declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 1);
        else
          declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
        continue;
      }
      if (quals != NULL_TREE
        && (declarator == NULL_TREE
            || TREE_CODE (declarator) != SCOPE_REF))
      {
        if (ctype == NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
          ctype = TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (type);
        if (ctype != NULL_TREE)
          {
            tree dummy = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, NULL_TREE, type);
            ctype = grok_method_quals (ctype, dummy, quals);
            type = TREE_TYPE (dummy);
            quals = NULL_TREE;
          }
      }
      switch (TREE_CODE (declarator))
      {
      case ARRAY_REF:
        {
          register tree itype = NULL_TREE;
          register tree size = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 1);
          /* The index is a signed object `sizetype' bits wide.  */
          tree index_type = signed_type (sizetype);

          declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);

          /* Check for some types that there cannot be arrays of.  */

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE)
            {
            cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as array of voids", dname);
            type = error_mark_node;
            }

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
            {
            cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as array of functions", dname);
            type = error_mark_node;
            }

          /* ARM $8.4.3: Since you can't have a pointer to a reference,
             you can't have arrays of references.  If we allowed them,
             then we'd be saying x[i] is valid for an array x, but
             then you'd have to ask: what does `*(x + i)' mean?  */
          if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
            {
            if (decl_context == TYPENAME)
              cp_error ("cannot make arrays of references");
            else
              cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as array of references",
                      dname);
            type = error_mark_node;
            }

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE)
            {
              cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as array of data members",
                      dname);
            type = error_mark_node;
            }

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
            {
            cp_error ("declaration of `%D' as array of function members",
                    dname);
            type = error_mark_node;
            }

          if (size == error_mark_node)
            type = error_mark_node;

          if (type == error_mark_node)
            continue;

          if (size)
            {
            /* Must suspend_momentary here because the index
               type may need to live until the end of the function.
               For example, it is used in the declaration of a
               variable which requires destructing at the end of
               the function; then build_vec_delete will need this
               value.  */
            int yes = suspend_momentary ();
            /* Might be a cast. */
            if (TREE_CODE (size) == NOP_EXPR
                && TREE_TYPE (size) == TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (size, 0)))
              size = TREE_OPERAND (size, 0);

            /* If this involves a template parameter, it'll be
               constant, but we don't know what the value is yet.  */
            if (processing_template_decl)
              {
                itype = make_node (INTEGER_TYPE);
                TYPE_MIN_VALUE (itype) = size_zero_node;
                TYPE_MAX_VALUE (itype) = build_min
                  (MINUS_EXPR, sizetype, size, integer_one_node);
                goto dont_grok_size;
              }

            if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (size)) != INTEGER_TYPE
                && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (size)) != ENUMERAL_TYPE)
              {
                cp_error ("size of array `%D' has non-integer type",
                        dname);
                size = integer_one_node;
              }
            if (TREE_READONLY_DECL_P (size))
              size = decl_constant_value (size);
            if (pedantic && integer_zerop (size))
              cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids zero-size array `%D'", dname);
            if (TREE_CONSTANT (size))
              {
                int old_flag_pedantic_errors = flag_pedantic_errors;
                int old_pedantic = pedantic;
                pedantic = flag_pedantic_errors = 1;
                /* Always give overflow errors on array subscripts.  */
                constant_expression_warning (size);
                pedantic = old_pedantic;
                flag_pedantic_errors = old_flag_pedantic_errors;
                if (INT_CST_LT (size, integer_zero_node))
                  {
                  cp_error ("size of array `%D' is negative", dname);
                  size = integer_one_node;
                  }
              }
            else
              {
                if (pedantic)
                  {
                  if (dname)
                    cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids variable-size array `%D'",
                              dname);
                  else
                    cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids variable-size array");
                  }
              }

            itype
              = fold (build_binary_op (MINUS_EXPR,
                                 cp_convert (index_type, size),
                                 cp_convert (index_type,
                                           integer_one_node), 1));
            if (! TREE_CONSTANT (itype))
              itype = variable_size (itype);
            else if (TREE_OVERFLOW (itype))
              {
                error ("overflow in array dimension");
                TREE_OVERFLOW (itype) = 0;
              }

            /* If we're a parm, we need to have a permanent type so
                   mangling checks for re-use will work right.  If both the
                   element and index types are permanent, the array type
                   will be, too.  */
            if (decl_context == PARM
                && allocation_temporary_p () && TREE_PERMANENT (type))
              {
                push_obstacks (&permanent_obstack, &permanent_obstack);
                itype = build_index_type (itype);
                pop_obstacks ();
              }
            else
              itype = build_index_type (itype);

            dont_grok_size:
            resume_momentary (yes);
            }

        /* Build the array type itself, then merge any constancy or
           volatility into the target type.  We must do it in this order
           to ensure that the TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT field of the array type
           is set correctly.  */

          type = build_cplus_array_type (type, itype);
          if (constp || volatilep)
            type = cp_build_type_variant (type, constp, volatilep);

          ctype = NULL_TREE;
        }
        break;

      case CALL_EXPR:
        {
          tree arg_types;
          int funcdecl_p;
          tree inner_parms = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 1);
          tree inner_decl = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);

          /* Declaring a function type.
             Make sure we have a valid type for the function to return.  */
#if 0
          /* Is this an error?  Should they be merged into TYPE here?  */
          if (pedantic && (constp || volatilep))
            pedwarn ("function declared to return const or volatile result");
#else
          /* Merge any constancy or volatility into the function return
               type.  */

          if (constp || volatilep)
            {
            type = cp_build_type_variant (type, constp, volatilep);
            if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (type))
              build_pointer_type (type);
            constp = 0;
            volatilep = 0;
            }
#endif

          /* Warn about some types functions can't return.  */

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
            {
            error ("`%s' declared as function returning a function", name);
            type = integer_type_node;
            }
          if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
            {
            error ("`%s' declared as function returning an array", name);
            type = integer_type_node;
            }

          if (inner_decl && TREE_CODE (inner_decl) == SCOPE_REF)
            inner_decl = TREE_OPERAND (inner_decl, 1);

          if (inner_decl && TREE_CODE (inner_decl) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR) 
            inner_decl = dname;

          /* Pick up type qualifiers which should be applied to `this'.  */
          quals = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 2);

          /* Pick up the exception specifications.  */
          raises = TREE_TYPE (declarator);

          /* Say it's a definition only for the CALL_EXPR
             closest to the identifier.  */
          funcdecl_p
            = inner_decl 
            && (TREE_CODE (inner_decl) == IDENTIFIER_NODE
              || TREE_CODE (inner_decl) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR 
              || TREE_CODE (inner_decl) == BIT_NOT_EXPR);
          
          if (ctype == NULL_TREE
            && decl_context == FIELD
            && funcdecl_p
            && (friendp == 0 || dname == current_class_name))
            ctype = current_class_type;

          if (ctype && return_type == return_conversion)
            TYPE_HAS_CONVERSION (ctype) = 1;
          if (ctype && constructor_name (ctype) == dname)
            {
            /* We are within a class's scope. If our declarator name
               is the same as the class name, and we are defining
               a function, then it is a constructor/destructor, and
               therefore returns a void type.  */

            if (flags == DTOR_FLAG)
              {
                /* ANSI C++ June 5 1992 WP 12.4.1.  A destructor may
                   not be declared const or volatile.  A destructor
                   may not be static.  */
                if (staticp == 2)
                  error ("destructor cannot be static member function");
                if (quals)
                  {
                  cp_error ("destructors may not be `%s'",
                          IDENTIFIER_POINTER (TREE_VALUE (quals)));
                  quals = NULL_TREE;
                  }
                if (decl_context == FIELD)
                  {
                  if (! member_function_or_else (ctype, current_class_type,
                                           "destructor for alien class `%s' cannot be a member"))
                    return void_type_node;
                  }
              }
            else            /* It's a constructor.  */
              {
                if (explicitp == 1)
                  explicitp = 2;
                /* ANSI C++ June 5 1992 WP 12.1.2.  A constructor may
                   not be declared const or volatile.  A constructor may
                   not be virtual.  A constructor may not be static.  */
                if (staticp == 2)
                  error ("constructor cannot be static member function");
                if (virtualp)
                  {
                  pedwarn ("constructors cannot be declared virtual");
                  virtualp = 0;
                  }
                if (quals)
                  {
                  cp_error ("constructors may not be `%s'",
                          IDENTIFIER_POINTER (TREE_VALUE (quals)));
                  quals = NULL_TREE;
                  }
                {
                  RID_BIT_TYPE tmp_bits;
                  bcopy ((void*)&specbits, (void*)&tmp_bits, sizeof (RID_BIT_TYPE));
                  RIDBIT_RESET (RID_INLINE, tmp_bits);
                  RIDBIT_RESET (RID_STATIC, tmp_bits);
                  if (RIDBIT_ANY_SET (tmp_bits))
                  error ("return value type specifier for constructor ignored");
                }
                type = build_pointer_type (ctype);
                if (decl_context == FIELD
                  && IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type))
                  {
                  error ("constructor not allowed in signature");
                  return void_type_node;
                  }                   
                else if (decl_context == FIELD)
                  {
                  if (! member_function_or_else (ctype, current_class_type,
                                           "constructor for alien class `%s' cannot be member"))
                    return void_type_node;
                  TYPE_HAS_CONSTRUCTOR (ctype) = 1;
                  if (return_type != return_ctor)
                    return NULL_TREE;
                  }
              }
            if (decl_context == FIELD)
              staticp = 0;
            }
          else if (friendp)
            {
            if (initialized)
              error ("can't initialize friend function `%s'", name);
            if (virtualp)
              {
                /* Cannot be both friend and virtual.  */
                error ("virtual functions cannot be friends");
                RIDBIT_RESET (RID_FRIEND, specbits);
                friendp = 0;
              }
            if (decl_context == NORMAL)
              error ("friend declaration not in class definition");
            if (current_function_decl && funcdef_flag)
              cp_error ("can't define friend function `%s' in a local class definition",
                      name);
            }

          /* Construct the function type and go to the next
             inner layer of declarator.  */

          declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);

          /* FIXME: This is where default args should be fully
             processed.  */

          arg_types = grokparms (inner_parms, funcdecl_p ? funcdef_flag : 0);

          if (declarator && flags == DTOR_FLAG)
            {
            /* A destructor declared in the body of a class will
               be represented as a BIT_NOT_EXPR.  But, we just
               want the underlying IDENTIFIER.  */
            if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == BIT_NOT_EXPR)
              declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
            
            if (strict_prototype == 0 && arg_types == NULL_TREE)
              arg_types = void_list_node;
            else if (arg_types == NULL_TREE
                   || arg_types != void_list_node)
              {
                cp_error ("destructors may not have parameters");
                arg_types = void_list_node;
                last_function_parms = NULL_TREE;
              }
            }

          /* ANSI says that `const int foo ();'
             does not make the function foo const.  */
          type = build_function_type (type, arg_types);

          {
            tree t;
            for (t = arg_types; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
            if (TREE_PURPOSE (t)
                && TREE_CODE (TREE_PURPOSE (t)) == DEFAULT_ARG)
              {
                add_defarg_fn (type);
                break;
              }
          }
        }
        break;

      case ADDR_EXPR:
      case INDIRECT_REF:
        /* Filter out pointers-to-references and references-to-references.
           We can get these if a TYPE_DECL is used.  */

        if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
          {
            error ("cannot declare %s to references",
                 TREE_CODE (declarator) == ADDR_EXPR
                 ? "references" : "pointers");
            declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
            continue;
          }

        if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE
            && (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) == VOID_TYPE
              || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) == REFERENCE_TYPE))
          {
            cp_error ("cannot declare pointer to `%#T' member",
                  TREE_TYPE (type));
            type = TREE_TYPE (type);
          }

        /* Merge any constancy or volatility into the target type
           for the pointer.  */

        if (constp || volatilep)
          {
            /* A const or volatile signature pointer/reference is
             pointing to a const or volatile object, i.e., the
             `optr' is const or volatile, respectively, not the
             signature pointer/reference itself.  */
            if (! IS_SIGNATURE (type))
            {
              type = cp_build_type_variant (type, constp, volatilep);
              if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (type))
                build_pointer_type (type);
              constp = 0;
              volatilep = 0;
            }
          }

        if (IS_SIGNATURE (type))
          {
            if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == ADDR_EXPR)
            {
              if (CLASSTYPE_METHOD_VEC (type) == NULL_TREE
                  && TYPE_SIZE (type))
                cp_warning ("empty signature `%T' used in signature reference declaration",
                        type);
#if 0
              type = build_signature_reference_type (type,
                                           constp, volatilep);
#else
              sorry ("signature reference");
              return NULL_TREE;
#endif
            }
            else
            {
              if (CLASSTYPE_METHOD_VEC (type) == NULL_TREE
                  && TYPE_SIZE (type))
                cp_warning ("empty signature `%T' used in signature pointer declaration",
                        type);
              type = build_signature_pointer_type (type,
                                           constp, volatilep);
            }
            constp = 0;
            volatilep = 0;
          }
        else if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == ADDR_EXPR)
          {
            if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
            {
              error ("cannot declare references to functions; use pointer to function instead");
              type = build_pointer_type (type);
            }
            else
            {
              if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE)
                error ("invalid type: `void &'");
              else
                type = build_reference_type (type);
            }
          }
        else if (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
          {
            type = build_ptrmemfunc_type (build_pointer_type (type));
          }
        else
          type = build_pointer_type (type);

        /* Process a list of type modifier keywords (such as
           const or volatile) that were given inside the `*' or `&'.  */

        if (TREE_TYPE (declarator))
          {
            register tree typemodlist;
            int erred = 0;
            for (typemodlist = TREE_TYPE (declarator); typemodlist;
               typemodlist = TREE_CHAIN (typemodlist))
            {
              if (TREE_VALUE (typemodlist) == ridpointers[(int) RID_CONST])
                constp++;
              else if (TREE_VALUE (typemodlist) == ridpointers[(int) RID_VOLATILE])
                volatilep++;
              else if (!erred)
                {
                  erred = 1;
                  error ("invalid type modifier within %s declarator",
                       TREE_CODE (declarator) == ADDR_EXPR
                       ? "reference" : "pointer");
                }
            }
            if (constp > 1)
            pedwarn ("duplicate `const'");
            if (volatilep > 1)
            pedwarn ("duplicate `volatile'");
            if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == ADDR_EXPR
              && (constp || volatilep))
            {
              if (constp)
                pedwarn ("discarding `const' applied to a reference");
              if (volatilep)
                pedwarn ("discarding `volatile' applied to a reference");
              constp = volatilep = 0;
            }
          }
        declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
        ctype = NULL_TREE;
        break;

      case SCOPE_REF:
        {
          /* We have converted type names to NULL_TREE if the
             name was bogus, or to a _TYPE node, if not.

             The variable CTYPE holds the type we will ultimately
             resolve to.  The code here just needs to build
             up appropriate member types.  */
          tree sname = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 1);
          tree t;

          /* Destructors can have their visibilities changed as well.  */
          if (TREE_CODE (sname) == BIT_NOT_EXPR)
            sname = TREE_OPERAND (sname, 0);

          if (TREE_COMPLEXITY (declarator) == 0)
            /* This needs to be here, in case we are called
             multiple times.  */ ;
          else if (TREE_COMPLEXITY (declarator) == -1)
            /* Namespace member. */
            pop_decl_namespace ();
          else if (friendp && (TREE_COMPLEXITY (declarator) < 2))
            /* Don't fall out into global scope. Hides real bug? --eichin */ ;
          else if (! IS_AGGR_TYPE_CODE
                 (TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0))))
            ;
          else if (TREE_COMPLEXITY (declarator) == current_class_depth)
            {
            /* Resolve any TYPENAME_TYPEs from the decl-specifier-seq
               that refer to ctype.  They couldn't be resolved earlier
               because we hadn't pushed into the class yet.
               Example: resolve 'B<T>::type' in
               'B<typename B<T>::type> B<T>::f () { }'.  */
            if (current_template_parms
                && uses_template_parms (type)
                && uses_template_parms (current_class_type))
              {
                tree args = current_template_args ();
                type = tsubst (type, args, NULL_TREE);
              }

            /* This pop_nested_class corresponds to the
                   push_nested_class used to push into class scope for
                   parsing the argument list of a function decl, in
                   qualified_id.  */
            pop_nested_class (1);
            TREE_COMPLEXITY (declarator) = current_class_depth;
            }
          else
            my_friendly_abort (16);

          if (TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0) == NULL_TREE)
            {
            /* We had a reference to a global decl, or
               perhaps we were given a non-aggregate typedef,
               in which case we cleared this out, and should just
               keep going as though it wasn't there.  */
            declarator = sname;
            continue;
            }
          ctype = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);

          t = ctype;
          while (t != NULL_TREE) 
            {
            if (CLASSTYPE_TEMPLATE_INFO (t) &&
                !CLASSTYPE_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (t))
              template_count += 1;
            t = TYPE_MAIN_DECL (t);
            if (DECL_LANG_SPECIFIC (t))
              t = DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (t);
            else
              t = NULL_TREE;
            }

          if (sname == NULL_TREE)
            goto done_scoping;

          if (TREE_CODE (sname) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
            {
            /* This is the `standard' use of the scoping operator:
               basetype :: member .  */

            if (ctype == current_class_type)
              {
                /* class A {
                     void A::f ();
                   };

                   Is this ill-formed?  */

                if (pedantic)
                  cp_pedwarn ("extra qualification `%T::' on member `%s' ignored",
                          ctype, name);
              }
            else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
              {
                if (current_class_type == NULL_TREE
                  || friendp)
                  type = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype, constp, volatilep),
                                          TREE_TYPE (type), TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type));
                else
                  {
                  cp_error ("cannot declare member function `%T::%s' within `%T'",
                          ctype, name, current_class_type);
                  return void_type_node;
                  }
              }
            else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits)
                   || TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (ctype)) != NULL_TREE)
              {
                /* Have to move this code elsewhere in this function.
                   this code is used for i.e., typedef int A::M; M *pm;

                   It is?  How? jason 10/2/94 */

                if (current_class_type)
                  {
                  cp_error ("cannot declare member `%T::%s' within `%T'",
                          ctype, name, current_class_type);
                  return void_type_node;
                  }
                type = build_offset_type (ctype, type);
              }
            else if (uses_template_parms (ctype))
              {
                    if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
                  type
                  = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype,
                                                       constp,
                                                       volatilep),
                                       TREE_TYPE (type),
                                       TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type));
              }
            else
              {
                cp_error ("structure `%T' not yet defined", ctype);
                return error_mark_node;
              }

            declarator = sname;
            }
          else if (TREE_CODE (sname) == SCOPE_REF)
            my_friendly_abort (17);
          else
            {
            done_scoping:
            declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 1);
            if (declarator && TREE_CODE (declarator) == CALL_EXPR)
              /* In this case, we will deal with it later.  */
              ;
            else
              {
                if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
                  type = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype, constp, volatilep), TREE_TYPE (type), TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type));
                else
                  type = build_offset_type (ctype, type);
              }
            }
        }
        break;

      case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
        declarator = TREE_OPERAND (declarator, 0);
        break;

      case RECORD_TYPE:
      case UNION_TYPE:
      case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
        declarator = NULL_TREE;
        break;

      case ERROR_MARK:
        declarator = NULL_TREE;
        break;

      default:
        my_friendly_abort (158);
      }
    }

  if (explicitp == 1)
    {
      error ("only constructors can be declared `explicit'");
      explicitp = 0;
    }

  /* Now TYPE has the actual type.  */

  /* If this is declaring a typedef name, return a TYPE_DECL.  */

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
    {
      if (constp)
      {
        error ("const `%s' cannot be declared `mutable'", name);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
      }
      else if (staticp)
      {
        error ("static `%s' cannot be declared `mutable'", name);
        RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
      }
    }

  if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_TYPEDEF, specbits) && decl_context != TYPENAME)
    {
      tree decl;

      /* Note that the grammar rejects storage classes
       in typenames, fields or parameters.  */
      if (constp || volatilep)
      type = cp_build_type_variant (type, constp, volatilep);
      if (current_lang_name == lang_name_java)
      TYPE_FOR_JAVA (type) = 1;

      if (decl_context == FIELD)
      {
        if (declarator == current_class_name)
          cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids nested type `%D' with same name as enclosing class",
                  declarator);
        decl = build_lang_decl (TYPE_DECL, declarator, type);
        if (IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type) && opaque_typedef)
          SIGNATURE_HAS_OPAQUE_TYPEDECLS (current_class_type) = 1;
      }
      else
      {
        /* Make sure this typedef lives as long as its type,
           since it might be used as a template parameter. */
        if (type != error_mark_node)
          push_obstacks (TYPE_OBSTACK (type), TYPE_OBSTACK (type));
        decl = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, declarator, type);
        if (type != error_mark_node)
          pop_obstacks ();
      }

      /* If the user declares "struct {...} foo" then `foo' will have
       an anonymous name.  Fill that name in now.  Nothing can
       refer to it, so nothing needs know about the name change.
       The TYPE_NAME field was filled in by build_struct_xref.  */
      if (type != error_mark_node
        && !TYPE_READONLY (type) && !TYPE_VOLATILE (type)
        && TYPE_NAME (type)
        && TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (type)) == TYPE_DECL
        && ANON_AGGRNAME_P (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (type)))
      {
        /* Replace the anonymous name with the real name everywhere.  */
        lookup_tag_reverse (type, declarator);
        TYPE_NAME (type) = decl;

        if (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type))
          TYPE_WAS_ANONYMOUS (type) = 1;

        /* XXX Temporarily set the scope. 
           When returning, start_decl expects it as NULL_TREE,
           and will then then set it using pushdecl. */
        my_friendly_assert (DECL_CONTEXT (decl) == NULL_TREE, 980404);
        if (current_class_type)
          DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = current_class_type;
        else
          DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = FROB_CONTEXT (current_namespace);

        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = DECL_NAME (decl);
        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl)
          = get_identifier (build_overload_name (type, 1, 1));
        DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = NULL_TREE;
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE || TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
      {
        cp_error_at ("typedef name may not be class-qualified", decl);
        return NULL_TREE;
      }
      else if (quals)
      {
        if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
          {
            if (TREE_CODE (type) != METHOD_TYPE)
            cp_error_at ("invalid type qualifier for non-method type", decl);
            else
            ctype = TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (type);
          }
        if (ctype != NULL_TREE)
          grok_method_quals (ctype, decl, quals);
      }

      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_SIGNED, specbits)
        || (typedef_decl && C_TYPEDEF_EXPLICITLY_SIGNED (typedef_decl)))
      C_TYPEDEF_EXPLICITLY_SIGNED (decl) = 1;

      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
      {
        error ("non-object member `%s' cannot be declared mutable", name);
      }

      bad_specifiers (decl, "type", virtualp, quals != NULL_TREE,
                  inlinep, friendp, raises != NULL_TREE);

      if (initialized)
      error ("typedef declaration includes an initializer");

      return decl;
    }

  /* Detect the case of an array type of unspecified size
     which came, as such, direct from a typedef name.
     We must copy the type, so that each identifier gets
     a distinct type, so that each identifier's size can be
     controlled separately by its own initializer.  */

  if (type == typedef_type && TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE)
    {
      type = build_cplus_array_type (TREE_TYPE (type), TYPE_DOMAIN (type));
    }

  /* If this is a type name (such as, in a cast or sizeof),
     compute the type and return it now.  */

  if (decl_context == TYPENAME)
    {
      /* Note that the grammar rejects storage classes
       in typenames, fields or parameters.  */
      if (constp || volatilep)
      {
        if (IS_SIGNATURE (type))
          error ("`const' or `volatile' specified with signature type");
        else  
          type = cp_build_type_variant (type, constp, volatilep);
      }

      /* Special case: "friend class foo" looks like a TYPENAME context.  */
      if (friendp)
      {
        if (volatilep)
          {
            cp_error ("`volatile' specified for friend class declaration");
            volatilep = 0;
          }
        if (inlinep)
          {
            cp_error ("`inline' specified for friend class declaration");
            inlinep = 0;
          }

        /* Only try to do this stuff if we didn't already give up.  */
        if (type != integer_type_node)
          {
            /* A friendly class?  */
            if (current_class_type)
            make_friend_class (current_class_type, TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type));
            else
            error ("trying to make class `%s' a friend of global scope",
                   TYPE_NAME_STRING (type));
            type = void_type_node;
          }
      }
      else if (quals)
      {
        tree dummy = build_decl (TYPE_DECL, declarator, type);
        if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
          {
            my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE, 159);
            ctype = TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (type);
          }
        grok_method_quals (ctype, dummy, quals);
        type = TREE_TYPE (dummy);
      }

      return type;
    }
  else if (declarator == NULL_TREE && decl_context != PARM
         && decl_context != CATCHPARM
         && TREE_CODE (type) != UNION_TYPE
         && ! bitfield)
    {
      cp_error ("abstract declarator `%T' used as declaration", type);
      declarator = make_anon_name ();
    }

  /* `void' at top level (not within pointer)
     is allowed only in typedefs or type names.
     We don't complain about parms either, but that is because
     a better error message can be made later.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE && decl_context != PARM)
    {
      if (! declarator)
      error ("unnamed variable or field declared void");
      else if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
      {
        if (IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (declarator))
          my_friendly_abort (356);
        else
          error ("variable or field `%s' declared void", name);
      }
      else
      error ("variable or field declared void");
      type = integer_type_node;
    }

  /* Now create the decl, which may be a VAR_DECL, a PARM_DECL
     or a FUNCTION_DECL, depending on DECL_CONTEXT and TYPE.  */

  {
    register tree decl;

    if (decl_context == PARM)
      {
      if (ctype)
        error ("cannot use `::' in parameter declaration");

      /* A parameter declared as an array of T is really a pointer to T.
         One declared as a function is really a pointer to a function.
         One declared as a member is really a pointer to member.  */

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
        {
          /* Transfer const-ness of array into that of type pointed to.  */
          type = build_pointer_type
            (cp_build_type_variant (TREE_TYPE (type), constp, volatilep));
          volatilep = constp = 0;
        }
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
        type = build_pointer_type (type);
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE)
        type = build_pointer_type (type);
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE && declarator)
        {
          error ("declaration of `%s' as void", name);
          return NULL_TREE;
        }

      decl = build_decl (PARM_DECL, declarator, complete_type (type));

      bad_specifiers (decl, "parameter", virtualp, quals != NULL_TREE,
                  inlinep, friendp, raises != NULL_TREE);
      if (current_class_type
          && IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type))
        {
          if (inlinep)
            error ("parameter of signature member function declared `inline'");
          if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_AUTO, specbits))
            error ("parameter of signature member function declared `auto'");
          if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits))
            error ("parameter of signature member function declared `register'");
        }

      /* Compute the type actually passed in the parmlist,
         for the case where there is no prototype.
         (For example, shorts and chars are passed as ints.)
         When there is a prototype, this is overridden later.  */

      DECL_ARG_TYPE (decl) = type_promotes_to (type);
      }
    else if (decl_context == FIELD)
      {
      if (type == error_mark_node)
        {
          /* Happens when declaring arrays of sizes which
             are error_mark_node, for example.  */
          decl = NULL_TREE;
        }
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
        {
          int publicp = 0;
          tree function_context;

          /* We catch the others as conflicts with the builtin
             typedefs.  */
          if (friendp && declarator == ridpointers[(int) RID_SIGNED])
            {
            cp_error ("function `%D' cannot be declared friend",
                    declarator);
            friendp = 0;
            }

          if (friendp == 0)
            {
            if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
              ctype = current_class_type;

            if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
              {
                cp_error ("can't make `%D' into a method -- not in a class",
                        declarator);
                return void_type_node;
              }

            /* ``A union may [ ... ] not [ have ] virtual functions.''
               ARM 9.5 */
            if (virtualp && TREE_CODE (ctype) == UNION_TYPE)
              {
                cp_error ("function `%D' declared virtual inside a union",
                        declarator);
                return void_type_node;
              }

            if (declarator == ansi_opname[(int) NEW_EXPR]
                || declarator == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_NEW_EXPR]
                || declarator == ansi_opname[(int) DELETE_EXPR]
                || declarator == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_DELETE_EXPR])
              {
                if (virtualp)
                  {
                  cp_error ("`%D' cannot be declared virtual, since it is always static",
                          declarator);
                  virtualp = 0;
                  }
              }
            else if (staticp < 2)
              type = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype, constp, volatilep),
                                      TREE_TYPE (type), TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type));
            }

          /* Tell grokfndecl if it needs to set TREE_PUBLIC on the node.  */
          function_context = (ctype != NULL_TREE) ? 
            hack_decl_function_context (TYPE_MAIN_DECL (ctype)) : NULL_TREE;
          publicp = (! friendp || ! staticp)
            && function_context == NULL_TREE;
          decl = grokfndecl (ctype, type, 
                         TREE_CODE (declarator) != TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR
                         ? declarator : dname,
                         declarator,
                         virtualp, flags, quals, raises, attrlist,
                         friendp ? -1 : 0, friendp, publicp, inlinep,
                         funcdef_flag, template_count, in_namespace);
          if (decl == NULL_TREE)
            return NULL_TREE;
#if 0
          /* This clobbers the attrs stored in `decl' from `attrlist'.  */
          /* The decl and setting of decl_machine_attr is also turned off.  */
          decl = build_decl_attribute_variant (decl, decl_machine_attr);
#endif

          if (explicitp == 2)
            DECL_NONCONVERTING_P (decl) = 1;
        }
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
        {
          /* We only get here for friend declarations of
             members of other classes.  */
          /* All method decls are public, so tell grokfndecl to set
             TREE_PUBLIC, also.  */
          decl = grokfndecl (ctype, type, declarator, declarator,
                         virtualp, flags, quals, raises, attrlist,
                         friendp ? -1 : 0, friendp, 1, 0, funcdef_flag,
                         template_count, in_namespace);
          if (decl == NULL_TREE)
            return NULL_TREE;
        }
      else if (!staticp && ! processing_template_decl
             && TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (type)) == NULL_TREE
             && (TREE_CODE (type) != ARRAY_TYPE || initialized == 0))
        {
          if (declarator)
            cp_error ("field `%D' has incomplete type", declarator);
          else
            cp_error ("name `%T' has incomplete type", type);

          /* If we're instantiating a template, tell them which
             instantiation made the field's type be incomplete.  */
          if (current_class_type
            && TYPE_NAME (current_class_type)
            && IDENTIFIER_TEMPLATE (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (current_class_type))
            && declspecs && TREE_VALUE (declspecs)
            && TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (declspecs)) == type)
            cp_error ("  in instantiation of template `%T'",
                  current_class_type);

          type = error_mark_node;
          decl = NULL_TREE;
        }
      else
        {
          if (friendp)
            {
            error ("`%s' is neither function nor method; cannot be declared friend",
                   IDENTIFIER_POINTER (declarator));
            friendp = 0;
            }
          decl = NULL_TREE;
        }

      if (friendp)
        {
          /* Friends are treated specially.  */
          if (ctype == current_class_type)
            warning ("member functions are implicitly friends of their class");
          else
            {
            tree t = NULL_TREE;
            if (decl && DECL_NAME (decl))
              t = do_friend (ctype, declarator, decl,
                         last_function_parms, flags, quals,
                         funcdef_flag);
            if (t && funcdef_flag)
              return t;
            
            return void_type_node;
            }
        }

      /* Structure field.  It may not be a function, except for C++ */

      if (decl == NULL_TREE)
        {
          if (initialized)
            {
            if (!staticp)
              {
                /* An attempt is being made to initialize a non-static
                   member.  But, from [class.mem]:
                   
                   4 A member-declarator can contain a
                   constant-initializer only if it declares a static
                   member (_class.static_) of integral or enumeration
                   type, see _class.static.data_.  

                   This used to be relatively common practice, but
                   the rest of the compiler does not correctly
                   handle the initialization unless the member is
                   static so we make it static below.  */
                cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids initialization of %s `%D'",
                        constp ? "const member" : "member", 
                        declarator);
                cp_pedwarn ("making `%D' static", declarator);
                staticp = 1;
              }

            /* Motion 10 at San Diego: If a static const integral data
               member is initialized with an integral constant
               expression, the initializer may appear either in the
               declaration (within the class), or in the definition,
               but not both.  If it appears in the class, the member is
               a member constant.  The file-scope definition is always
               required.  */
            if (! constp)
              /* According to Mike Stump, we generate bad code for
                 this case, so we might as well always make it an
                 error.  */
              cp_error ("ANSI C++ forbids in-class initialization of non-const static member `%D'",
                      declarator);
            
            if (pedantic && ! INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type) 
                && !uses_template_parms (type))
              cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids initialization of member constant `%D' of non-integral type `%T'", declarator, type);
            }

          if (staticp)
            {
            /* ANSI C++ Apr '95 wp 9.2 */
            if (declarator == current_class_name)
              cp_pedwarn ("ANSI C++ forbids static member `%D' with same name as enclosing class",
                        declarator);

            /* C++ allows static class members.
               All other work for this is done by grokfield.
               This VAR_DECL is built by build_lang_field_decl.
               All other VAR_DECLs are built by build_decl.  */
            decl = build_lang_field_decl (VAR_DECL, declarator, type);
            TREE_STATIC (decl) = 1;
            /* In class context, 'static' means public access.  */
            TREE_PUBLIC (decl) = DECL_EXTERNAL (decl) = 1;
            }
          else
            {
            decl = build_lang_field_decl (FIELD_DECL, declarator, type);
            if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
              {
                DECL_MUTABLE_P (decl) = 1;
                RIDBIT_RESET (RID_MUTABLE, specbits);
              }
            }

          bad_specifiers (decl, "field", virtualp, quals != NULL_TREE,
                      inlinep, friendp, raises != NULL_TREE);
        }
      }
    else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE || TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
      {
      tree original_name;
      int publicp = 0;

      if (! declarator)
        return NULL_TREE;

      if (TREE_CODE (declarator) == TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
        original_name = dname;
      else
        original_name = declarator;

      if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_AUTO, specbits))
        error ("storage class `auto' invalid for function `%s'", name);
      else if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits))
        error ("storage class `register' invalid for function `%s'", name);

      /* Function declaration not at top level.
         Storage classes other than `extern' are not allowed
         and `extern' makes no difference.  */
      if (! toplevel_bindings_p ()
          && (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits)
            || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_INLINE, specbits))
          && pedantic)
        {
          if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits))
            pedwarn ("storage class `static' invalid for function `%s' declared out of global scope", name);
          else
            pedwarn ("storage class `inline' invalid for function `%s' declared out of global scope", name);
        }
      
      if (ctype == NULL_TREE)
        {
          if (virtualp)
            {
            error ("virtual non-class function `%s'", name);
            virtualp = 0;
            }

          if (current_lang_name == lang_name_cplusplus
            && ! processing_template_decl
            && ! MAIN_NAME_P (original_name)
            && ! (IDENTIFIER_LENGTH (original_name) > 10
                  && IDENTIFIER_POINTER (original_name)[0] == '_'
                  && IDENTIFIER_POINTER (original_name)[1] == '_'
                  && strncmp (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (original_name)+2, "builtin_", 8) == 0))
            /* Plain overloading: will not be grok'd by grokclassfn.  */
            if (name_mangling_version < 1 
              || TREE_CODE (declarator) != TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR)
            declarator = build_decl_overload (dname, TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type), 0);
        }
      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE && staticp < 2)
        type = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype, constp, volatilep),
                                TREE_TYPE (type), TYPE_ARG_TYPES (type));

      /* Record presence of `static'.  */
      publicp = (ctype != NULL_TREE
               || RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits)
               || !RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits));

      decl = grokfndecl (ctype, type, original_name, declarator,
                     virtualp, flags, quals, raises, attrlist,
                     1, friendp,
                     publicp, inlinep, funcdef_flag, 
                     template_count, in_namespace);
      if (decl == NULL_TREE)
        return NULL_TREE;

      /* Among other times, could occur from check_explicit_specialization
         returning an error_mark_node.  */
      if (decl == error_mark_node)
        return error_mark_node;

      if (ctype == NULL_TREE && DECL_LANGUAGE (decl) != lang_c
          && (! DECL_USE_TEMPLATE (decl) ||
            name_mangling_version < 1)) 
        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = declarator;
      
      if (staticp == 1)
        {
          int illegal_static = 0;

          /* Don't allow a static member function in a class, and forbid
             declaring main to be static.  */
          if (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
            {
            cp_pedwarn ("cannot declare member function `%D' to have static linkage", decl);
            illegal_static = 1;
            }
          else if (current_function_decl)
            {
            /* FIXME need arm citation */
            error ("cannot declare static function inside another function");
            illegal_static = 1;
            }

          if (illegal_static)
            {
            staticp = 0;
            RIDBIT_RESET (RID_STATIC, specbits);
            }
        }
      }
    else
      {
      /* It's a variable.  */

      if (decl_context == CATCHPARM)
        {
          if (ctype)
            {
            ctype = NULL_TREE;
            error ("cannot use `::' in parameter declaration");
            }

          /* A parameter declared as an array of T is really a pointer to T.
             One declared as a function is really a pointer to a function.
             One declared as a member is really a pointer to member.  */

          if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
            {
            /* Transfer const-ness of array into that of type
                   pointed to.  */
            type = build_pointer_type
              (cp_build_type_variant (TREE_TYPE (type), constp, volatilep));
            volatilep = constp = 0;
            }
          else if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
            type = build_pointer_type (type);
          else if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE)
            type = build_pointer_type (type);
        }

      /* An uninitialized decl with `extern' is a reference.  */
      decl = grokvardecl (type, declarator, &specbits, 
                      initialized, constp, in_namespace);
      bad_specifiers (decl, "variable", virtualp, quals != NULL_TREE,
                  inlinep, friendp, raises != NULL_TREE);

      if (ctype)
        {
          DECL_CONTEXT (decl) = ctype;
          if (staticp == 1)
            {
              cp_pedwarn ("static member `%D' re-declared as static", decl);
              staticp = 0;
            RIDBIT_RESET (RID_STATIC, specbits);
            }
          if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits) && TREE_STATIC (decl))
            {
            cp_error ("static member `%D' declared `register'", decl);
            RIDBIT_RESET (RID_REGISTER, specbits);
            }
          if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits) && pedantic)
            {
              cp_pedwarn ("cannot explicitly declare member `%#D' to have extern linkage",
                      decl);
            RIDBIT_RESET (RID_EXTERN, specbits);
            }
        }
      }

    if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_MUTABLE, specbits))
      {
      error ("`%s' cannot be declared mutable", name);
      }

    /* Record `register' declaration for warnings on &
       and in case doing stupid register allocation.  */

    if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_REGISTER, specbits))
      DECL_REGISTER (decl) = 1;

    if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_EXTERN, specbits))
      DECL_THIS_EXTERN (decl) = 1;

    if (RIDBIT_SETP (RID_STATIC, specbits))
      DECL_THIS_STATIC (decl) = 1;

    /* Record constancy and volatility.  */

    if (constp)
      TREE_READONLY (decl) = TREE_CODE (type) != REFERENCE_TYPE;
    if (volatilep)
      {
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (decl) = 1;
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (decl) = 1;
      }

    return decl;
  }
}

/* Tell if a parmlist/exprlist looks like an exprlist or a parmlist.
   An empty exprlist is a parmlist.  An exprlist which
   contains only identifiers at the global level
   is a parmlist.  Otherwise, it is an exprlist.  */

int
parmlist_is_exprlist (exprs)
     tree exprs;
{
  if (exprs == NULL_TREE || TREE_PARMLIST (exprs))
    return 0;

  if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    {
      /* At the global level, if these are all identifiers,
       then it is a parmlist.  */
      while (exprs)
      {
        if (TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (exprs)) != IDENTIFIER_NODE)
          return 1;
        exprs = TREE_CHAIN (exprs);
      }
      return 0;
    }
  return 1;
}

/* Subroutine of `grokparms'.  In a fcn definition, arg types must
   be complete.

   C++: also subroutine of `start_function'.  */

static void
require_complete_types_for_parms (parms)
     tree parms;
{
  if (processing_template_decl)
    return;

  while (parms)
    {
      tree type = TREE_TYPE (parms);
      if (TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (type)) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        if (DECL_NAME (parms))
          error ("parameter `%s' has incomplete type",
               IDENTIFIER_POINTER (DECL_NAME (parms)));
        else
          error ("parameter has incomplete type");
        TREE_TYPE (parms) = error_mark_node;
      }
#if 0
      /* If the arg types are incomplete in a declaration,
       they must include undefined tags.
       These tags can never be defined in the scope of the declaration,
       so the types can never be completed,
       and no call can be compiled successfully.  */
      /* This is not the right behavior for C++, but not having
       it is also probably wrong.  */
      else
      {
        /* Now warn if is a pointer to an incomplete type.  */
        while (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
             || TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
          type = TREE_TYPE (type);
        type = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type);
        if (TYPE_SIZE (type) == NULL_TREE)
          {
            if (DECL_NAME (parm) != NULL_TREE)
            warning ("parameter `%s' points to incomplete type",
                   IDENTIFIER_POINTER (DECL_NAME (parm)));
            else
            warning ("parameter points to incomplete type");
          }
      }
#endif
      parms = TREE_CHAIN (parms);
    }
}

/* Decode the list of parameter types for a function type.
   Given the list of things declared inside the parens,
   return a list of types.

   The list we receive can have three kinds of elements:
   an IDENTIFIER_NODE for names given without types,
   a TREE_LIST node for arguments given as typespecs or names with typespecs,
   or void_type_node, to mark the end of an argument list
   when additional arguments are not permitted (... was not used).

   FUNCDEF_FLAG is nonzero for a function definition, 0 for
   a mere declaration.  A nonempty identifier-list gets an error message
   when FUNCDEF_FLAG is zero.
   If FUNCDEF_FLAG is 1, then parameter types must be complete.
   If FUNCDEF_FLAG is -1, then parameter types may be incomplete.

   If all elements of the input list contain types,
   we return a list of the types.
   If all elements contain no type (except perhaps a void_type_node
   at the end), we return a null list.
   If some have types and some do not, it is an error, and we
   return a null list.

   Also set last_function_parms to either
   a list of names (IDENTIFIER_NODEs) or a chain of PARM_DECLs.
   A list of names is converted to a chain of PARM_DECLs
   by store_parm_decls so that ultimately it is always a chain of decls.

   Note that in C++, parameters can take default values.  These default
   values are in the TREE_PURPOSE field of the TREE_LIST.  It is
   an error to specify default values which are followed by parameters
   that have no default values, or an ELLIPSES.  For simplicities sake,
   only parameters which are specified with their types can take on
   default values.  */

static tree
grokparms (first_parm, funcdef_flag)
     tree first_parm;
     int funcdef_flag;
{
  tree result = NULL_TREE;
  tree decls = NULL_TREE;

  if (first_parm != NULL_TREE
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (first_parm)) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
    {
      if (! funcdef_flag)
      pedwarn ("parameter names (without types) in function declaration");
      last_function_parms = first_parm;
      return NULL_TREE;
    }
  else if (first_parm != NULL_TREE
         && TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (first_parm)) != TREE_LIST
         && TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (first_parm)) != VOID_TYPE)
    my_friendly_abort (145);
  else
    {
      /* Types were specified.  This is a list of declarators
       each represented as a TREE_LIST node.  */
      register tree parm, chain;
      int any_init = 0, any_error = 0;

      if (first_parm != NULL_TREE)
      {
        tree last_result = NULL_TREE;
        tree last_decl = NULL_TREE;

        for (parm = first_parm; parm != NULL_TREE; parm = chain)
          {
            tree type = NULL_TREE, list_node = parm;
            register tree decl = TREE_VALUE (parm);
            tree init = TREE_PURPOSE (parm);

            chain = TREE_CHAIN (parm);
            /* @@ weak defense against parse errors.  */
            if (TREE_CODE (decl) != VOID_TYPE 
              && TREE_CODE (decl) != TREE_LIST)
            {
              /* Give various messages as the need arises.  */
              if (TREE_CODE (decl) == STRING_CST)
                cp_error ("invalid string constant `%E'", decl);
              else if (TREE_CODE (decl) == INTEGER_CST)
                error ("invalid integer constant in parameter list, did you forget to give parameter name?");
              continue;
            }

            if (TREE_CODE (decl) != VOID_TYPE)
            {
              decl = grokdeclarator (TREE_VALUE (decl),
                               TREE_PURPOSE (decl),
                               PARM, init != NULL_TREE,
                               NULL_TREE);
              if (! decl)
                continue;
              type = TREE_TYPE (decl);
              if (TREE_CODE (type) == VOID_TYPE)
                decl = void_type_node;
              else if (TREE_CODE (type) == METHOD_TYPE)
                {
                  if (DECL_NAME (decl))
                  /* Cannot use the decl here because
                     we don't have DECL_CONTEXT set up yet.  */
                  cp_error ("parameter `%D' invalidly declared method type",
                          DECL_NAME (decl));
                  else
                  error ("parameter invalidly declared method type");
                  type = build_pointer_type (type);
                  TREE_TYPE (decl) = type;
                }
              else if (TREE_CODE (type) == OFFSET_TYPE)
                {
                  if (DECL_NAME (decl))
                  cp_error ("parameter `%D' invalidly declared offset type",
                          DECL_NAME (decl));
                  else
                  error ("parameter invalidly declared offset type");
                  type = build_pointer_type (type);
                  TREE_TYPE (decl) = type;
                }
                  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == RECORD_TYPE
                           && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)
                           && CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (type))
                    {
                      abstract_virtuals_error (decl, type);
                      any_error = 1;  /* Seems like a good idea. */
                    }
                  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == RECORD_TYPE
                           && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)
                           && IS_SIGNATURE (type))
                    {
                      signature_error (decl, type);
                      any_error = 1;  /* Seems like a good idea. */
                    }
            }

            if (TREE_CODE (decl) == VOID_TYPE)
            {
              if (result == NULL_TREE)
                {
                  result = void_list_node;
                  last_result = result;
                }
              else
                {
                  TREE_CHAIN (last_result) = void_list_node;
                  last_result = void_list_node;
                }
              if (chain
                  && (chain != void_list_node || TREE_CHAIN (chain)))
                error ("`void' in parameter list must be entire list");
              break;
            }

            /* Since there is a prototype, args are passed in their own types.  */
            DECL_ARG_TYPE (decl) = TREE_TYPE (decl);
#ifdef PROMOTE_PROTOTYPES
            if ((TREE_CODE (type) == INTEGER_TYPE
               || TREE_CODE (type) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
              && TYPE_PRECISION (type) < TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node))
            DECL_ARG_TYPE (decl) = integer_type_node;
#endif
            if (!any_error)
            {
              if (init)
                {
                  any_init++;
                  if (TREE_CODE (init) == SAVE_EXPR)
                  PARM_DECL_EXPR (init) = 1;
                  else if (processing_template_decl)
                  ;
                  /* Unparsed default arg from in-class decl.  */
                  else if (TREE_CODE (init) == DEFAULT_ARG)
                  ;
                  else if (TREE_CODE (init) == VAR_DECL
                         || TREE_CODE (init) == PARM_DECL)
                  {
                    if (IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (init)))
                      {
                        /* ``Local variables may not be used in default
                         argument expressions.'' dpANSI C++ 8.2.6 */
                        /* If extern int i; within a function is not
                         considered a local variable, then this code is
                         wrong.  */
                        cp_error ("local variable `%D' may not be used as a default argument", init);
                        any_error = 1;
                      }
                    else if (TREE_READONLY_DECL_P (init))
                      init = decl_constant_value (init);
                  }
                  else
                  init = require_instantiated_type (type, init, integer_zero_node);
                  if (! processing_template_decl
                    && init != error_mark_node
                    && TREE_CODE (init) != DEFAULT_ARG
                    && ! can_convert_arg (type, TREE_TYPE (init), init))
                  cp_pedwarn ("invalid type `%T' for default argument to `%#D'",
                            TREE_TYPE (init), decl);
                }
            }
            else
            init = NULL_TREE;

            if (decls == NULL_TREE)
            {
              decls = decl;
              last_decl = decls;
            }
            else
            {
              TREE_CHAIN (last_decl) = decl;
              last_decl = decl;
            }
            if (! current_function_decl && TREE_PERMANENT (list_node))
            {
              TREE_PURPOSE (list_node) = init;
              TREE_VALUE (list_node) = type;
              TREE_CHAIN (list_node) = NULL_TREE;
            }
            else
            list_node = saveable_tree_cons (init, type, NULL_TREE);
            if (result == NULL_TREE)
            {
              result = list_node;
              last_result = result;
            }
            else
            {
              TREE_CHAIN (last_result) = list_node;
              last_result = list_node;
            }
          }
        if (last_result)
          TREE_CHAIN (last_result) = NULL_TREE;
        /* If there are no parameters, and the function does not end
           with `...', then last_decl will be NULL_TREE.  */
        if (last_decl != NULL_TREE)
          TREE_CHAIN (last_decl) = NULL_TREE;
      }
    }

  last_function_parms = decls;

  /* In a fcn definition, arg types must be complete.  */
  if (funcdef_flag > 0)
    require_complete_types_for_parms (last_function_parms);

  return result;
}

/* Called from the parser to update an element of TYPE_ARG_TYPES for some
   FUNCTION_TYPE with the newly parsed version of its default argument, which
   was previously digested as text.  See snarf_defarg et al in lex.c.  */

void
replace_defarg (arg, init)
     tree arg, init;
{
  if (! processing_template_decl
      && ! can_convert_arg (TREE_VALUE (arg), TREE_TYPE (init), init))
    cp_pedwarn ("invalid type `%T' for default argument to `%T'",
            TREE_TYPE (init), TREE_VALUE (arg));
  TREE_PURPOSE (arg) = init;
}

int
copy_args_p (d)
     tree d;
{
  tree t = FUNCTION_ARG_CHAIN (d);
  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (d)
      && TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (DECL_CONTEXT (d)))
    t = TREE_CHAIN (t);
  if (t && TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (t)) == REFERENCE_TYPE
      && (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (t)))
        == DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (d))
      && (TREE_CHAIN (t) == NULL_TREE
        || TREE_CHAIN (t) == void_list_node
        || TREE_PURPOSE (TREE_CHAIN (t))))
    return 1;
  return 0;
}

/* These memoizing functions keep track of special properties which
   a class may have.  `grok_ctor_properties' notices whether a class
   has a constructor of the form X(X&), and also complains
   if the class has a constructor of the form X(X).
   `grok_op_properties' takes notice of the various forms of
   operator= which are defined, as well as what sorts of type conversion
   may apply.  Both functions take a FUNCTION_DECL as an argument.  */

int
grok_ctor_properties (ctype, decl)
     tree ctype, decl;
{
  tree parmtypes = FUNCTION_ARG_CHAIN (decl);
  tree parmtype = parmtypes ? TREE_VALUE (parmtypes) : void_type_node;

  /* When a type has virtual baseclasses, a magical first int argument is
     added to any ctor so we can tell if the class has been initialized
     yet.  This could screw things up in this function, so we deliberately
     ignore the leading int if we're in that situation.  */
  if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (ctype))
    {
      my_friendly_assert (parmtypes
                    && TREE_VALUE (parmtypes) == integer_type_node,
                    980529);
      parmtypes = TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes);
      parmtype = TREE_VALUE (parmtypes);
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (parmtype) == REFERENCE_TYPE
      && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (parmtype)) == ctype
      && (TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes) == NULL_TREE
        || TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes) == void_list_node
        || TREE_PURPOSE (TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes))))
    {
      TYPE_HAS_INIT_REF (ctype) = 1;
      if (TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (parmtype)))
      TYPE_HAS_CONST_INIT_REF (ctype) = 1;
    }
  else if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (parmtype) == ctype
         && TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes) != NULL_TREE
         && TREE_CHAIN (parmtypes) == void_list_node)
    {
      cp_error ("invalid constructor; you probably meant `%T (const %T&)'",
            ctype, ctype);
      SET_IDENTIFIER_ERROR_LOCUS (DECL_NAME (decl), ctype);
      return 0;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (parmtype) == VOID_TYPE
         || TREE_PURPOSE (parmtypes) != NULL_TREE)
    TYPE_HAS_DEFAULT_CONSTRUCTOR (ctype) = 1;

  return 1;
}

/* An operator with this name can be either unary or binary.  */

static int
ambi_op_p (name)
     tree name;
{
  return (name == ansi_opname [(int) INDIRECT_REF]
        || name == ansi_opname [(int) ADDR_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname [(int) NEGATE_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTINCREMENT_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTDECREMENT_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname [(int) CONVERT_EXPR]);
}

/* An operator with this name can only be unary.  */

static int
unary_op_p (name)
     tree name;
{
  return (name == ansi_opname [(int) TRUTH_NOT_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname [(int) BIT_NOT_EXPR]
        || name == ansi_opname [(int) COMPONENT_REF]
        || OPERATOR_TYPENAME_P (name));
}

/* Do a little sanity-checking on how they declared their operator.  */

void
grok_op_properties (decl, virtualp, friendp)
     tree decl;
     int virtualp, friendp;
{
  tree argtypes = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (decl));
  int methodp = (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == METHOD_TYPE);
  tree name = DECL_NAME (decl);

  if (current_class_type == NULL_TREE)
    friendp = 1;

  if (! friendp)
    {
      if (name == ansi_opname[(int) MODIFY_EXPR])
      TYPE_HAS_ASSIGNMENT (current_class_type) = 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) CALL_EXPR])
      TYPE_OVERLOADS_CALL_EXPR (current_class_type) = 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) ARRAY_REF])
      TYPE_OVERLOADS_ARRAY_REF (current_class_type) = 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) COMPONENT_REF]
             || name == ansi_opname[(int) MEMBER_REF])
      TYPE_OVERLOADS_ARROW (current_class_type) = 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) NEW_EXPR])
      TYPE_GETS_NEW (current_class_type) |= 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) DELETE_EXPR])
      TYPE_GETS_DELETE (current_class_type) |= 1;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_NEW_EXPR])
      TYPE_GETS_NEW (current_class_type) |= 2;
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_DELETE_EXPR])
      TYPE_GETS_DELETE (current_class_type) |= 2;
    }

  if (name == ansi_opname[(int) NEW_EXPR]
      || name == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_NEW_EXPR])
    {
      /* When the compiler encounters the definition of A::operator new, it
       doesn't look at the class declaration to find out if it's static.  */
      if (methodp)
      revert_static_member_fn (&decl, NULL, NULL);
     
      /* Take care of function decl if we had syntax errors.  */
      if (argtypes == NULL_TREE)
      TREE_TYPE (decl)
        = build_function_type (ptr_type_node,
                         hash_tree_chain (integer_type_node,
                                      void_list_node));
      else
      TREE_TYPE (decl) = coerce_new_type (TREE_TYPE (decl));
    }
  else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) DELETE_EXPR]
         || name == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_DELETE_EXPR])
    {
      if (methodp)
      revert_static_member_fn (&decl, NULL, NULL);
     
      if (argtypes == NULL_TREE)
      TREE_TYPE (decl)
        = build_function_type (void_type_node,
                         hash_tree_chain (ptr_type_node,
                                      void_list_node));
      else
      {
        TREE_TYPE (decl) = coerce_delete_type (TREE_TYPE (decl));

        if (! friendp && name == ansi_opname[(int) VEC_DELETE_EXPR]
            && (TREE_CHAIN (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (decl)))
              != void_list_node))
          TYPE_VEC_DELETE_TAKES_SIZE (current_class_type) = 1;
      }
    }
  else
    {
      /* An operator function must either be a non-static member function
       or have at least one parameter of a class, a reference to a class,
       an enumeration, or a reference to an enumeration.  13.4.0.6 */
      if (! methodp || DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl))
      {
        if (OPERATOR_TYPENAME_P (name)
            || name == ansi_opname[(int) CALL_EXPR]
            || name == ansi_opname[(int) MODIFY_EXPR]
            || name == ansi_opname[(int) COMPONENT_REF]
            || name == ansi_opname[(int) ARRAY_REF])
          cp_error ("`%D' must be a nonstatic member function", decl);
        else
          {
            tree p = argtypes;

            if (DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl))
            cp_error ("`%D' must be either a non-static member function or a non-member function", decl);

            if (p)
            for (; TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (p)) != VOID_TYPE ; p = TREE_CHAIN (p))
              {
                tree arg = TREE_VALUE (p);
                if (TREE_CODE (arg) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
                  arg = TREE_TYPE (arg);

                /* This lets bad template code slip through.  */
                if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (arg)
                  || TREE_CODE (arg) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
                  || TREE_CODE (arg) == TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
                  || TREE_CODE (arg) == TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM)
                  goto foundaggr;
              }
            cp_error
            ("`%D' must have an argument of class or enumerated type",
             decl);
          foundaggr:
            ;
          }
      }
      
      if (name == ansi_opname[(int) CALL_EXPR])
      return;                 /* No restrictions on args. */

      if (IDENTIFIER_TYPENAME_P (name) && ! DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (decl))
      {
        tree t = TREE_TYPE (name);
        if (TREE_CODE (t) == VOID_TYPE)
          pedwarn ("void is not a valid type conversion operator");
        else if (! friendp)
          {
            int ref = (TREE_CODE (t) == REFERENCE_TYPE);
            char *what = 0;
            if (ref)
            t = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (t));

            if (t == current_class_type)
            what = "the same type";
            /* Don't force t to be complete here.  */
            else if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (t)
                   && TYPE_SIZE (t)
                   && DERIVED_FROM_P (t, current_class_type))
            what = "a base class";

            if (what)
            warning ("conversion to %s%s will never use a type conversion operator",
                   ref ? "a reference to " : "", what);
          }
      }

      if (name == ansi_opname[(int) MODIFY_EXPR])
      {
        tree parmtype;

        if (list_length (argtypes) != 3 && methodp)
          {
            cp_error ("`%D' must take exactly one argument", decl);
            return;
          }
        parmtype = TREE_VALUE (TREE_CHAIN (argtypes));

        if (copy_assignment_arg_p (parmtype, virtualp)
            && ! friendp)
          {
            TYPE_HAS_ASSIGN_REF (current_class_type) = 1;
            if (TREE_CODE (parmtype) != REFERENCE_TYPE
              || TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (parmtype)))
            TYPE_HAS_CONST_ASSIGN_REF (current_class_type) = 1;
          }
      }
      else if (name == ansi_opname[(int) COND_EXPR])
      {
        /* 13.4.0.3 */
        pedwarn ("ANSI C++ prohibits overloading operator ?:");
        if (list_length (argtypes) != 4)
          cp_error ("`%D' must take exactly three arguments", decl);
      }       
      else if (ambi_op_p (name))
      {
        if (list_length (argtypes) == 2)
          /* prefix */;
        else if (list_length (argtypes) == 3)
          {
            if ((name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTINCREMENT_EXPR]
               || name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTDECREMENT_EXPR])
              && ! processing_template_decl
              && TREE_VALUE (TREE_CHAIN (argtypes)) != integer_type_node)
            {
              if (methodp)
                cp_error ("postfix `%D' must take `int' as its argument",
                        decl);
              else
                cp_error
                  ("postfix `%D' must take `int' as its second argument",
                   decl);
            }
          }
        else
          {
            if (methodp)
            cp_error ("`%D' must take either zero or one argument", decl);
            else
            cp_error ("`%D' must take either one or two arguments", decl);
          }

        /* More Effective C++ rule 6.  */
        if (warn_ecpp
            && (name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTINCREMENT_EXPR]
              || name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTDECREMENT_EXPR]))
          {
            tree arg = TREE_VALUE (argtypes);
            tree ret = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (decl));
            if (methodp || TREE_CODE (arg) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
            arg = TREE_TYPE (arg);
            arg = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (arg);
            if (list_length (argtypes) == 2)
            {
              if (TREE_CODE (ret) != REFERENCE_TYPE
                  || !comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (ret)),
                             arg, 1))
                cp_warning ("prefix `%D' should return `%T'", decl,
                        build_reference_type (arg));
            }
            else
            {
              if (!comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (ret), arg, 1))
                cp_warning ("postfix `%D' should return `%T'", decl, arg);
            }
          }
      }
      else if (unary_op_p (name))
      {
        if (list_length (argtypes) != 2)
          {
            if (methodp)
            cp_error ("`%D' must take `void'", decl);
            else
            cp_error ("`%D' must take exactly one argument", decl);
          }
      }
      else /* if (binary_op_p (name)) */
      {
        if (list_length (argtypes) != 3)
          {
            if (methodp)
            cp_error ("`%D' must take exactly one argument", decl);
            else
            cp_error ("`%D' must take exactly two arguments", decl);
          }

        /* More Effective C++ rule 7.  */
        if (warn_ecpp
            && (name == ansi_opname [TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR]
              || name == ansi_opname [TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR]
              || name == ansi_opname [COMPOUND_EXPR]))
          cp_warning ("user-defined `%D' always evaluates both arguments",
                  decl);
      }

      /* Effective C++ rule 23.  */
      if (warn_ecpp
        && list_length (argtypes) == 3
        && (name == ansi_opname [PLUS_EXPR]
            || name == ansi_opname [MINUS_EXPR]
            || name == ansi_opname [TRUNC_DIV_EXPR]
            || name == ansi_opname [MULT_EXPR])
        && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (decl))) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
      cp_warning ("`%D' should return by value", decl);

      /* 13.4.0.8 */
      if (argtypes)
      for (; argtypes != void_list_node ; argtypes = TREE_CHAIN (argtypes))
        if (TREE_PURPOSE (argtypes))
          {
            TREE_PURPOSE (argtypes) = NULL_TREE;
            if (name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTINCREMENT_EXPR]
              || name == ansi_opname[(int) POSTDECREMENT_EXPR])
            {
              if (pedantic)
                cp_pedwarn ("`%D' cannot have default arguments", decl);
            }
            else
            cp_error ("`%D' cannot have default arguments", decl);
          }
    }
}

/* Get the struct, enum or union (CODE says which) with tag NAME.
   Define the tag as a forward-reference if it is not defined.

   C++: If a class derivation is given, process it here, and report
   an error if multiple derivation declarations are not identical.

   If this is a definition, come in through xref_tag and only look in
   the current frame for the name (since C++ allows new names in any
   scope.)  */

tree
xref_tag (code_type_node, name, binfo, globalize)
     tree code_type_node;
     tree name, binfo;
     int globalize;
{
  enum tag_types tag_code;
  enum tree_code code;
  int temp = 0;
  register tree ref, t;
  struct binding_level *b = inner_binding_level;
  int got_type = 0;
  tree attributes = NULL_TREE;

  /* If we are called from the parser, code_type_node will sometimes be a
     TREE_LIST.  This indicates that the user wrote
     "class __attribute__ ((foo)) bar".  Extract the attributes so we can
     use them later.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (code_type_node) == TREE_LIST)
    {
      attributes = TREE_PURPOSE (code_type_node);
      code_type_node = TREE_VALUE (code_type_node);
    }

  tag_code = (enum tag_types) TREE_INT_CST_LOW (code_type_node);
  switch (tag_code)
    {
    case record_type:
    case class_type:
    case signature_type:
      code = RECORD_TYPE;
      break;
    case union_type:
      code = UNION_TYPE;
      break;
    case enum_type:
      code = ENUMERAL_TYPE;
      break;
    default:
      my_friendly_abort (18);
    }

  /* If a cross reference is requested, look up the type
     already defined for this tag and return it.  */
  if (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (name)) == 't')
    {
      t = name;
      name = TYPE_IDENTIFIER (t);
      got_type = 1;
    }
  else
    t = IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (name);
  if (t && TREE_CODE (t) != code && TREE_CODE (t) != TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
      && TREE_CODE (t) != TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM)
    t = NULL_TREE;

  if (! globalize)
    {
      if (pedantic && t && (TREE_CODE (t) == TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM 
                      || TREE_CODE (t) == TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM))
      {
        cp_pedwarn ("redeclaration of template type-parameter `%T'", name);
        cp_pedwarn_at ("  previously declared here", t);
      }
      if (t && TYPE_CONTEXT (t) && got_type)
      ref = t;
      else
      {
        /* If we know we are defining this tag, only look it up in
           this scope and don't try to find it as a type.  */
        ref = lookup_tag (code, name, b, 1);
      }
    }
  else
    {
      if (t)
      ref = t;
      else
        ref = lookup_tag (code, name, b, 0);

      if (! ref)
      {
        /* Try finding it as a type declaration.  If that wins, use it.  */
        ref = lookup_name (name, 1);

        if (ref != NULL_TREE
            && processing_template_decl
            && DECL_CLASS_TEMPLATE_P (ref)
            && template_class_depth (current_class_type) == 0)
          /* Since GLOBALIZE is true, we're declaring a global
             template, so we want this type.  */
          ref = DECL_RESULT (ref);

        if (ref && TREE_CODE (ref) == TYPE_DECL
            && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ref)) == code)
          ref = TREE_TYPE (ref);
        else
          ref = NULL_TREE;
      }
    }

  push_obstacks_nochange ();

  if (! ref)
    {
      /* If no such tag is yet defined, create a forward-reference node
       and record it as the "definition".
       When a real declaration of this type is found,
       the forward-reference will be altered into a real type.  */

      /* In C++, since these migrate into the global scope, we must
       build them on the permanent obstack.  */

      temp = allocation_temporary_p ();
      if (temp)
      end_temporary_allocation ();

      if (code == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
      {
        cp_error ("use of enum `%#D' without previous declaration", name);

        ref = make_node (ENUMERAL_TYPE);

        /* Give the type a default layout like unsigned int
           to avoid crashing if it does not get defined.  */
        TYPE_MODE (ref) = TYPE_MODE (unsigned_type_node);
        TYPE_ALIGN (ref) = TYPE_ALIGN (unsigned_type_node);
        TREE_UNSIGNED (ref) = 1;
        TYPE_PRECISION (ref) = TYPE_PRECISION (unsigned_type_node);
        TYPE_MIN_VALUE (ref) = TYPE_MIN_VALUE (unsigned_type_node);
        TYPE_MAX_VALUE (ref) = TYPE_MAX_VALUE (unsigned_type_node);

        /* Enable us to recognize when a type is created in class context.
           To do nested classes correctly, this should probably be cleared
           out when we leave this classes scope.  Currently this in only
           done in `start_enum'.  */

        pushtag (name, ref, globalize);
      }
      else
      {
        struct binding_level *old_b = class_binding_level;

        ref = make_lang_type (code);

        if (tag_code == signature_type)
          {
            SET_SIGNATURE (ref);
            /* Since a signature type will be turned into the type
             of signature tables, it's not only an interface.  */
            CLASSTYPE_INTERFACE_ONLY (ref) = 0;
            SET_CLASSTYPE_INTERFACE_KNOWN (ref);
            /* A signature doesn't have a vtable.  */
            CLASSTYPE_VTABLE_NEEDS_WRITING (ref) = 0;
          }

#ifdef NONNESTED_CLASSES
        /* Class types don't nest the way enums do.  */
        class_binding_level = (struct binding_level *)0;
#endif
        pushtag (name, ref, globalize);
        class_binding_level = old_b;
      }
    }
  else
    {
      /* If it no longer looks like a nested type, make sure it's
       in global scope.  
         If it is not an IDENTIFIER, this is not a declaration */
      if (b->namespace_p && !class_binding_level
        && TREE_CODE (name) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
      {
        if (IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name) == NULL_TREE)
          SET_IDENTIFIER_NAMESPACE_VALUE (name, TYPE_NAME (ref));
      }

      if (!globalize && processing_template_decl && IS_AGGR_TYPE (ref))
      redeclare_class_template (ref, current_template_parms);
    }

  if (binfo)
    xref_basetypes (code_type_node, name, ref, binfo);

  /* Until the type is defined, tentatively accept whatever
     structure tag the user hands us.  */
  if (TYPE_SIZE (ref) == NULL_TREE
      && ref != current_class_type
      /* Have to check this, in case we have contradictory tag info.  */
      && IS_AGGR_TYPE_CODE (TREE_CODE (ref)))
    {
      if (tag_code == class_type)
      CLASSTYPE_DECLARED_CLASS (ref) = 1;
      else if (tag_code == record_type || tag_code == signature_type)
      CLASSTYPE_DECLARED_CLASS (ref) = 0;
    }

  pop_obstacks ();

  TREE_TYPE (ref) = attributes;

  return ref;
}

tree
xref_tag_from_type (old, id, globalize)
     tree old, id;
     int globalize;
{
  tree code_type_node;

  if (TREE_CODE (old) == RECORD_TYPE)
    code_type_node = (CLASSTYPE_DECLARED_CLASS (old)
                  ? class_type_node : record_type_node);
  else
    code_type_node = union_type_node;

  if (id == NULL_TREE)
    id = TYPE_IDENTIFIER (old);

  return xref_tag (code_type_node, id, NULL_TREE, globalize);
}

void
xref_basetypes (code_type_node, name, ref, binfo)
     tree code_type_node;
     tree name, ref;
     tree binfo;
{
  /* In the declaration `A : X, Y, ... Z' we mark all the types
     (A, X, Y, ..., Z) so we can check for duplicates.  */
  tree binfos;
  int i, len;
  enum tag_types tag_code = (enum tag_types) TREE_INT_CST_LOW (code_type_node);

  if (tag_code == union_type)
    {
      cp_error ("derived union `%T' invalid", ref);
      return;
    }

  len = list_length (binfo);
  push_obstacks (TYPE_OBSTACK (ref), TYPE_OBSTACK (ref));

  SET_CLASSTYPE_MARKED (ref);
  BINFO_BASETYPES (TYPE_BINFO (ref)) = binfos = make_tree_vec (len);

  for (i = 0; binfo; binfo = TREE_CHAIN (binfo))
    {
      /* The base of a derived struct is public by default.  */
      int via_public
      = (TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_public_node
         || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_public_virtual_node
         || (tag_code != class_type
             && (TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_default_node
               || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_default_virtual_node)));
      int via_protected
      = (TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_protected_node
         || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_protected_virtual_node);
      int via_virtual
      = (TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_private_virtual_node
         || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_protected_virtual_node
         || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_public_virtual_node
         || TREE_PURPOSE (binfo) == access_default_virtual_node);
      tree basetype = TREE_VALUE (binfo);
      tree base_binfo;

      if (basetype && TREE_CODE (basetype) == TYPE_DECL)
      basetype = TREE_TYPE (basetype);
      if (!basetype
        || (TREE_CODE (basetype) != RECORD_TYPE
            && TREE_CODE (basetype) != TYPENAME_TYPE
            && TREE_CODE (basetype) != TEMPLATE_TYPE_PARM
            && TREE_CODE (basetype) != TEMPLATE_TEMPLATE_PARM))
      {
        cp_error ("base type `%T' fails to be a struct or class type",
                TREE_VALUE (binfo));
        continue;
      }

      GNU_xref_hier (name, basetype, via_public, via_virtual, 0);

#if 1
      /* This code replaces similar code in layout_basetypes.
         We put the complete_type first for implicit `typename'.  */
      if (TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (basetype)) == NULL_TREE
        && ! (current_template_parms && uses_template_parms (basetype)))
      {
        cp_error ("base class `%T' has incomplete type", basetype);
        continue;
      }
#endif
      else
      {
        if (CLASSTYPE_MARKED (basetype))
          {
            if (basetype == ref)
            cp_error ("recursive type `%T' undefined", basetype);
            else
            cp_error ("duplicate base type `%T' invalid", basetype);
            continue;
          }

        if (TYPE_FOR_JAVA (basetype)
            && current_lang_stack == current_lang_base)
          TYPE_FOR_JAVA (ref) = 1;

        /* Note that the BINFO records which describe individual
           inheritances are *not* shared in the lattice!  They
           cannot be shared because a given baseclass may be
           inherited with different `accessibility' by different
           derived classes.  (Each BINFO record describing an
           individual inheritance contains flags which say what
           the `accessibility' of that particular inheritance is.)  */
  
        base_binfo = make_binfo (integer_zero_node, basetype,
                           TYPE_BINFO_VTABLE (basetype),
                           TYPE_BINFO_VIRTUALS (basetype), NULL_TREE);
 
        TREE_VEC_ELT (binfos, i) = base_binfo;
        TREE_VIA_PUBLIC (base_binfo) = via_public;
        TREE_VIA_PROTECTED (base_binfo) = via_protected;
        TREE_VIA_VIRTUAL (base_binfo) = via_virtual;
        BINFO_INHERITANCE_CHAIN (base_binfo) = TYPE_BINFO (ref);

        SET_CLASSTYPE_MARKED (basetype);

        /* We are free to modify these bits because they are meaningless
           at top level, and BASETYPE is a top-level type.  */
        if (via_virtual || TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (basetype))
          {
            TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (ref) = 1;
            TYPE_USES_COMPLEX_INHERITANCE (ref) = 1;
          }

        TYPE_GETS_NEW (ref) |= TYPE_GETS_NEW (basetype);
        TYPE_GETS_DELETE (ref) |= TYPE_GETS_DELETE (basetype);
        CLASSTYPE_LOCAL_TYPEDECLS (ref) |= CLASSTYPE_LOCAL_TYPEDECLS (basetype);
        i += 1;
      }
    }
  if (i)
    TREE_VEC_LENGTH (binfos) = i;
  else
    BINFO_BASETYPES (TYPE_BINFO (ref)) = NULL_TREE;

  if (i > 1)
    TYPE_USES_MULTIPLE_INHERITANCE (ref) = 1;
  else if (i == 1)
    TYPE_USES_MULTIPLE_INHERITANCE (ref)
      = TYPE_USES_MULTIPLE_INHERITANCE (BINFO_TYPE (TREE_VEC_ELT (binfos, 0)));
  if (TYPE_USES_MULTIPLE_INHERITANCE (ref))
    TYPE_USES_COMPLEX_INHERITANCE (ref) = 1;

  /* Unmark all the types.  */
  while (--i >= 0)
    CLEAR_CLASSTYPE_MARKED (BINFO_TYPE (TREE_VEC_ELT (binfos, i)));
  CLEAR_CLASSTYPE_MARKED (ref);

  pop_obstacks ();
}
  

tree current_local_enum = NULL_TREE;

/* Begin compiling the definition of an enumeration type.
   NAME is its name (or null if anonymous).
   Returns the type object, as yet incomplete.
   Also records info about it so that build_enumerator
   may be used to declare the individual values as they are read.  */

tree
start_enum (name)
     tree name;
{
  register tree enumtype = NULL_TREE;
  struct binding_level *b = inner_binding_level;

  /* We are wasting space here and putting these on the permanent_obstack so
     that typeid(local enum) will work correctly. */
#if 0
  if (processing_template_decl && current_function_decl)
#endif
   
  end_temporary_allocation ();

  /* If this is the real definition for a previous forward reference,
     fill in the contents in the same object that used to be the
     forward reference.  */

  if (name != NULL_TREE)
    enumtype = lookup_tag (ENUMERAL_TYPE, name, b, 1);

  if (enumtype != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (enumtype) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    cp_error ("multiple definition of `%#T'", enumtype);
  else
    {
      enumtype = make_node (ENUMERAL_TYPE);
      pushtag (name, enumtype, 0);
    }

  if (b->pseudo_global)
    cp_error ("template declaration of `%#T'", enumtype);

  if (current_class_type)
    TREE_ADDRESSABLE (b->tags) = 1;

  current_local_enum = NULL_TREE;

  /* We don't copy this value because build_enumerator needs to do it.  */
  enum_next_value = integer_zero_node;
  enum_overflow = 0;

  GNU_xref_decl (current_function_decl, enumtype);
  return enumtype;
}

/* After processing and defining all the values of an enumeration type,
   install their decls in the enumeration type and finish it off.
   ENUMTYPE is the type object and VALUES a list of name-value pairs.
   Returns ENUMTYPE.  */

tree
finish_enum (enumtype, values)
     register tree enumtype, values;
{
  register tree minnode = NULL_TREE, maxnode = NULL_TREE;
  /* Calculate the maximum value of any enumerator in this type.  */

  if (values)
    {
      register tree pair;
      register tree value = DECL_INITIAL (TREE_VALUE (values));

      if (! processing_template_decl)
      {
        /* Speed up the main loop by performing some precalculations */
        TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (values)) = enumtype;
        TREE_TYPE (value) = enumtype;
        minnode = maxnode = value;
      }
      TREE_VALUE (values) = value;
      
      for (pair = TREE_CHAIN (values); pair; pair = TREE_CHAIN (pair))
      {
        value = DECL_INITIAL (TREE_VALUE (pair));
        if (! processing_template_decl)
          {
            TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (pair)) = enumtype;
            TREE_TYPE (value) = enumtype;
            if (tree_int_cst_lt (maxnode, value))
            maxnode = value;
            else if (tree_int_cst_lt (value, minnode))
            minnode = value;
          }
        TREE_VALUE (pair) = value;
      }
    }
  else
    maxnode = minnode = integer_zero_node;

  TYPE_VALUES (enumtype) = nreverse (values);

  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (current_function_decl)
      {
        add_tree (build_min (TAG_DEFN, enumtype));
        resume_temporary_allocation ();
      }
      return enumtype;
    }

  {
    int unsignedp = tree_int_cst_sgn (minnode) >= 0;
    int lowprec = min_precision (minnode, unsignedp);
    int highprec = min_precision (maxnode, unsignedp);
    int precision = MAX (lowprec, highprec);

    TYPE_SIZE (enumtype) = NULL_TREE;

    /* Set TYPE_MIN_VALUE and TYPE_MAX_VALUE according to `precision'.  */

    TYPE_PRECISION (enumtype) = precision;
    if (unsignedp)
      fixup_unsigned_type (enumtype);
    else
      fixup_signed_type (enumtype);

    if (flag_short_enums || (precision > TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node)))
      /* Use the width of the narrowest normal C type which is wide enough.  */
      TYPE_PRECISION (enumtype) = TYPE_PRECISION (type_for_size
                                      (precision, 1));
    else
      TYPE_PRECISION (enumtype) = TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node);

    TYPE_SIZE (enumtype) = 0;
    layout_type (enumtype);
  }

  {
    register tree tem;
    
    /* Fix up all variant types of this enum type.  */
    for (tem = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (enumtype); tem;
       tem = TYPE_NEXT_VARIANT (tem))
      {
      TYPE_VALUES (tem) = TYPE_VALUES (enumtype);
      TYPE_MIN_VALUE (tem) = TYPE_MIN_VALUE (enumtype);
      TYPE_MAX_VALUE (tem) = TYPE_MAX_VALUE (enumtype);
      TYPE_SIZE (tem) = TYPE_SIZE (enumtype);
      TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (tem) = TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (enumtype);
      TYPE_MODE (tem) = TYPE_MODE (enumtype);
      TYPE_PRECISION (tem) = TYPE_PRECISION (enumtype);
      TYPE_ALIGN (tem) = TYPE_ALIGN (enumtype);
      TREE_UNSIGNED (tem) = TREE_UNSIGNED (enumtype);
      }
  }

  /* Finish debugging output for this type.  */
  rest_of_type_compilation (enumtype, namespace_bindings_p ());

  return enumtype;
}

/* Build and install a CONST_DECL for one value of the
   current enumeration type (one that was begun with start_enum).
   Return a tree-list containing the name and its value.
   Assignment of sequential values by default is handled here.  */

tree
build_enumerator (name, value)
     tree name, value;
{
  tree decl, result;

  /* Remove no-op casts from the value.  */
  if (value)
    STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (value);

 if (! processing_template_decl)
   {
     /* Validate and default VALUE.  */
     if (value != NULL_TREE)
       {
       if (TREE_READONLY_DECL_P (value))
         value = decl_constant_value (value);

       if (TREE_CODE (value) == INTEGER_CST)
         {
           value = default_conversion (value);
           constant_expression_warning (value);
         }
       else
         {
           cp_error ("enumerator value for `%D' not integer constant", name);
           value = NULL_TREE;
         }
       }

     /* Default based on previous value.  */
     if (value == NULL_TREE && ! processing_template_decl)
       {
       value = enum_next_value;
       if (enum_overflow)
         cp_error ("overflow in enumeration values at `%D'", name);
       }

     /* Remove no-op casts from the value.  */
     if (value)
       STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (value);

     /* We have to always copy here; not all INTEGER_CSTs are unshared,
      and there's no wedding ring. Look at size_int()...*/
     value = copy_node (value);
#if 0
     /* To fix MAX_VAL enum consts. (bkoz)  */
     TREE_TYPE (value) = integer_type_node;
#endif
   }

  /* C++ associates enums with global, function, or class declarations.  */

  decl = current_scope ();
  if (decl && decl == current_class_type)
    {
      /* This enum declaration is local to the class, so we must put
       it in that class's list of decls.  */
      decl = build_lang_field_decl (CONST_DECL, name, integer_type_node);
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = value;
      TREE_READONLY (decl) = 1;
      pushdecl_class_level (decl);
      TREE_CHAIN (decl) = current_local_enum;
      current_local_enum = decl;
    }
  else
    {
      /* It's a global enum, or it's local to a function.  (Note local to
       a function could mean local to a class method.  */
      decl = build_decl (CONST_DECL, name, integer_type_node);
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = value;
      TREE_READONLY (decl) = 1;

      pushdecl (decl);
      GNU_xref_decl (current_function_decl, decl);
    }

 if (! processing_template_decl)
   {
     /* Set basis for default for next value.  */
     enum_next_value = build_binary_op_nodefault (PLUS_EXPR, value,
                                      integer_one_node, PLUS_EXPR);
     enum_overflow = tree_int_cst_lt (enum_next_value, value);
   }

  result = saveable_tree_cons (name, decl, NULL_TREE);
  return result;
}

tree
grok_enum_decls (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  tree d = current_local_enum;
  
  if (d == NULL_TREE)
    return decl;
  
  while (1)
    {
      if (TREE_CHAIN (d) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        TREE_CHAIN (d) = decl;
        break;
      }
      d = TREE_CHAIN (d);
    }

  decl = current_local_enum;
  current_local_enum = NULL_TREE;
  
  return decl;
}

static int function_depth;

/* Create the FUNCTION_DECL for a function definition.
   DECLSPECS and DECLARATOR are the parts of the declaration;
   they describe the function's name and the type it returns,
   but twisted together in a fashion that parallels the syntax of C.

   This function creates a binding context for the function body
   as well as setting up the FUNCTION_DECL in current_function_decl.

   Returns 1 on success.  If the DECLARATOR is not suitable for a function
   (it defines a datum instead), we return 0, which tells
   yyparse to report a parse error.

   For C++, we must first check whether that datum makes any sense.
   For example, "class A local_a(1,2);" means that variable local_a
   is an aggregate of type A, which should have a constructor
   applied to it with the argument list [1, 2].

   @@ There is currently no way to retrieve the storage
   @@ allocated to FUNCTION (or all of its parms) if we return
   @@ something we had previously.  */

int
start_function (declspecs, declarator, attrs, pre_parsed_p)
     tree declspecs, declarator, attrs;
     int pre_parsed_p;
{
  tree decl1;
  tree ctype = NULL_TREE;
  tree fntype;
  tree restype;
  extern int have_extern_spec;
  extern int used_extern_spec;
  int doing_friend = 0;

  /* Sanity check.  */
  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (void_list_node)) == VOID_TYPE, 160);
  my_friendly_assert (TREE_CHAIN (void_list_node) == NULL_TREE, 161);

  /* Assume, until we see it does.  */
  current_function_returns_value = 0;
  current_function_returns_null = 0;
  warn_about_return_type = 0;
  named_labels = 0;
  shadowed_labels = 0;
  current_function_assigns_this = 0;
  current_function_just_assigned_this = 0;
  current_function_parms_stored = 0;
  original_result_rtx = NULL_RTX;
  base_init_expr = NULL_TREE;
  current_base_init_list = NULL_TREE;
  current_member_init_list = NULL_TREE;
  ctor_label = dtor_label = NULL_TREE;
  static_labelno = 0;

  clear_temp_name ();

  /* This should only be done once on the top most decl.  */
  if (have_extern_spec && !used_extern_spec)
    {
      declspecs = decl_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, get_identifier ("extern"), declspecs);
      used_extern_spec = 1;
    }

  if (pre_parsed_p)
    {
      decl1 = declarator;

#if 0
      /* What was this testing for, exactly?  */
      if (! DECL_ARGUMENTS (decl1)
        && !DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl1)
        && !DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl1)
        && DECL_CLASS_SCOPE_P (decl1)
        && TYPE_IDENTIFIER (DECL_CONTEXT (decl1))
        && IDENTIFIER_TEMPLATE (TYPE_IDENTIFIER (DECL_CONTEXT (decl1))))
      {
        tree binding = binding_for_name (DECL_NAME (decl1), 
                                 current_namespace);
        cp_error ("redeclaration of `%#D'", decl1);
        if (IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (DECL_NAME (decl1)))
          cp_error_at ("previous declaration here", IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (DECL_NAME (decl1)));
        else if (BINDING_VALUE (binding))
          cp_error_at ("previous declaration here", BINDING_VALUE (binding));
      }
#endif

      fntype = TREE_TYPE (decl1);
      if (TREE_CODE (fntype) == METHOD_TYPE)
      ctype = TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (fntype);

      /* ANSI C++ June 5 1992 WP 11.4.5.  A friend function defined in a
       class is in the (lexical) scope of the class in which it is
       defined.  */
      if (!ctype && DECL_FRIEND_P (decl1))
      {
        ctype = DECL_CLASS_CONTEXT (decl1);

        /* CTYPE could be null here if we're dealing with a template;
           for example, `inline friend float foo()' inside a template
           will have no CTYPE set.  */
        if (ctype && TREE_CODE (ctype) != RECORD_TYPE)
          ctype = NULL_TREE;
        else
          doing_friend = 1;
      }

      /* In a fcn definition, arg types must be complete.  */
      require_complete_types_for_parms (DECL_ARGUMENTS (decl1));

      /* In case some arg types were completed since the declaration was
         parsed, fix up the decls.  */
      {
      tree t = DECL_ARGUMENTS (decl1);
      for (; t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
        layout_decl (t, 0);
      }

      last_function_parms = DECL_ARGUMENTS (decl1);
      last_function_parm_tags = NULL_TREE;
    }
  else
    {
      decl1 = grokdeclarator (declarator, declspecs, FUNCDEF, 1, NULL_TREE);
      /* If the declarator is not suitable for a function definition,
       cause a syntax error.  */
      if (decl1 == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (decl1) != FUNCTION_DECL) return 0;

      fntype = TREE_TYPE (decl1);

      restype = TREE_TYPE (fntype);
      if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (restype) && ! TYPE_PTRMEMFUNC_P (restype)
        && ! CLASSTYPE_GOT_SEMICOLON (restype))
      {
        cp_error ("semicolon missing after declaration of `%#T'", restype);
        shadow_tag (build_expr_list (NULL_TREE, restype));
        CLASSTYPE_GOT_SEMICOLON (restype) = 1;
        if (TREE_CODE (fntype) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
          fntype = build_function_type (integer_type_node,
                                TYPE_ARG_TYPES (fntype));
        else
          fntype = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (fntype), TREE_READONLY (decl1), TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (decl1)),
                                    integer_type_node,
                                    TYPE_ARG_TYPES (fntype));
        TREE_TYPE (decl1) = fntype;
      }

      if (TREE_CODE (fntype) == METHOD_TYPE)
      ctype = TYPE_METHOD_BASETYPE (fntype);
      else if (DECL_MAIN_P (decl1))
      {
        /* If this doesn't return integer_type, complain.  */
        if (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (decl1)) != integer_type_node)
          {
            if (pedantic || warn_return_type)
            pedwarn ("return type for `main' changed to `int'");
            TREE_TYPE (decl1) = fntype = default_function_type;
          }
        warn_about_return_type = 0;
      }
    }

  /* Warn if function was previously implicitly declared
     (but not if we warned then).  */
  if (! warn_implicit
      && IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (DECL_NAME (decl1)) != NULL_TREE)
    cp_warning_at ("`%D' implicitly declared before its definition", IDENTIFIER_IMPLICIT_DECL (DECL_NAME (decl1)));

  current_function_decl = decl1;
  /* Save the parm names or decls from this function's declarator
     where store_parm_decls will find them.  */
  current_function_parms = last_function_parms;
  current_function_parm_tags = last_function_parm_tags;

  announce_function (decl1);

  if (! processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (TYPE_SIZE (complete_type (TREE_TYPE (fntype))) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        cp_error ("return-type `%#T' is an incomplete type",
                TREE_TYPE (fntype));

        /* Make it return void instead, but don't change the
           type of the DECL_RESULT, in case we have a named return value.  */
        if (ctype)
          TREE_TYPE (decl1)
            = build_cplus_method_type (build_type_variant (ctype,
                                               TREE_READONLY (decl1),
                                               TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (decl1)),
                               void_type_node,
                               FUNCTION_ARG_CHAIN (decl1));
        else
          TREE_TYPE (decl1)
            = build_function_type (void_type_node,
                             TYPE_ARG_TYPES (TREE_TYPE (decl1)));
        DECL_RESULT (decl1)
          = build_decl (RESULT_DECL, 0, TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (fntype)));
        TREE_READONLY (DECL_RESULT (decl1)) = TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (fntype));
        TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (DECL_RESULT (decl1)) = TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (fntype));
      }

      if (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (TREE_TYPE (fntype))
        && CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (TREE_TYPE (fntype)))
      abstract_virtuals_error (decl1, TREE_TYPE (fntype));
    }

  if (warn_about_return_type)
    pedwarn ("return-type defaults to `int'");

  /* Effective C++ rule 15.  See also c_expand_return.  */
  if (warn_ecpp
      && DECL_NAME (decl1) == ansi_opname[(int) MODIFY_EXPR]
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (fntype)) == VOID_TYPE)
    cp_warning ("`operator=' should return a reference to `*this'");

  /* Make the init_value nonzero so pushdecl knows this is not tentative.
     error_mark_node is replaced below (in poplevel) with the BLOCK.  */
  DECL_INITIAL (decl1) = error_mark_node;

  /* This function exists in static storage.
     (This does not mean `static' in the C sense!)  */
  TREE_STATIC (decl1) = 1;

  /* Record the decl so that the function name is defined.
     If we already have a decl for this name, and it is a FUNCTION_DECL,
     use the old decl.  */

  if (processing_template_decl)
    decl1 = push_template_decl (decl1);
  else if (pre_parsed_p == 0)
    {
      /* A specialization is not used to guide overload resolution.  */
      if ((flag_guiding_decls 
         || !DECL_TEMPLATE_SPECIALIZATION (decl1))
        && ! DECL_FUNCTION_MEMBER_P (decl1))
      decl1 = pushdecl (decl1);
      else
      {
        /* We need to set the DECL_CONTEXT. */
        if (!DECL_CONTEXT (decl1) && DECL_TEMPLATE_INFO (decl1))
          DECL_CONTEXT (decl1) = DECL_CONTEXT (DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (decl1));
        /* And make sure we have enough default args.  */
        check_default_args (decl1);
      }
      DECL_MAIN_VARIANT (decl1) = decl1;
      fntype = TREE_TYPE (decl1);
    }

  current_function_decl = decl1;

  if (DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (decl1))
    {
      tree ctx = hack_decl_function_context (decl1);

      if (DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (decl1))
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl1) = 0;

      if (ctx != NULL_TREE && DECL_THIS_INLINE (ctx) 
        && TREE_PUBLIC (ctx))
      /* This is a function in a local class in an extern inline
         function.  */
      comdat_linkage (decl1);
    }
  /* If this function belongs to an interface, it is public.
     If it belongs to someone else's interface, it is also external.
     It doesn't matter whether it's inline or not.  */
  else if (interface_unknown == 0
         && (! DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (decl1)
             || flag_alt_external_templates))
    {
      if (DECL_THIS_INLINE (decl1) || DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (decl1)
        || processing_template_decl)
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl1)
        = (interface_only
           || (DECL_THIS_INLINE (decl1) && ! flag_implement_inlines));
      else
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl1) = 0;
      DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (decl1) = 0;
      DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (decl1) = 1;
    }
  else
    {
      /* This is a definition, not a reference.
       So clear DECL_EXTERNAL.  */
      DECL_EXTERNAL (decl1) = 0;

      if ((DECL_THIS_INLINE (decl1) || DECL_TEMPLATE_INSTANTIATION (decl1))
        && ! DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (decl1)
        /* Don't try to defer nested functions for now.  */
        && ! hack_decl_function_context (decl1))
      DECL_DEFER_OUTPUT (decl1) = 1;
      else
      DECL_INTERFACE_KNOWN (decl1) = 1;
    }

  if (ctype != NULL_TREE && DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl1))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (fntype) == METHOD_TYPE)
      TREE_TYPE (decl1) = fntype
        = build_function_type (TREE_TYPE (fntype),
                         TREE_CHAIN (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (fntype)));
      current_function_parms = TREE_CHAIN (current_function_parms);
      DECL_ARGUMENTS (decl1) = current_function_parms;
      ctype = NULL_TREE;
    }
  restype = TREE_TYPE (fntype);

  if (ctype)
    {
      push_nested_class (ctype, 1);

      /* If we're compiling a friend function, neither of the variables
       current_class_ptr nor current_class_type will have values.  */
      if (! doing_friend)
      {
        /* We know that this was set up by `grokclassfn'.
           We do not wait until `store_parm_decls', since evil
           parse errors may never get us to that point.  Here
           we keep the consistency between `current_class_type'
           and `current_class_ptr'.  */
        tree t = current_function_parms;

        my_friendly_assert (t != NULL_TREE
                        && TREE_CODE (t) == PARM_DECL, 162);

        if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == POINTER_TYPE)
          {
            int i = suspend_momentary ();

            /* Fool build_indirect_ref.  */
            current_class_ptr = NULL_TREE;
            current_class_ref = build_indirect_ref (t, NULL_PTR);
            current_class_ptr = t;
            resume_momentary (i);
          }
        else
          /* We're having a signature pointer here.  */
          current_class_ref = current_class_ptr = t;

      }
    }
  else
    {
      if (DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (decl1))
      push_nested_class (DECL_CONTEXT (decl1), 2);
      else
      push_memoized_context (0, 1);
      current_class_ptr = current_class_ref = NULL_TREE;
    }

  pushlevel (0);
  current_binding_level->parm_flag = 1;

  GNU_xref_function (decl1, current_function_parms);

  if (attrs)
    cplus_decl_attributes (decl1, NULL_TREE, attrs);
  make_function_rtl (decl1);

  /* Promote the value to int before returning it.  */
  if (C_PROMOTING_INTEGER_TYPE_P (restype))
    restype = type_promotes_to (restype);

  /* If this fcn was already referenced via a block-scope `extern' decl
     (or an implicit decl), propagate certain information about the usage.  */
  if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl1)))
    TREE_ADDRESSABLE (decl1) = 1;

  if (DECL_RESULT (decl1) == NULL_TREE)
    {
      DECL_RESULT (decl1)
      = build_decl (RESULT_DECL, 0, TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (restype));
      TREE_READONLY (DECL_RESULT (decl1)) = TYPE_READONLY (restype);
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (DECL_RESULT (decl1)) = TYPE_VOLATILE (restype);
    }

  /* Allocate further tree nodes temporarily during compilation
     of this function only.  Tiemann moved up here from bottom of fn.  */
  /* If this is a nested function, then we must continue to allocate RTL
     on the permanent obstack in case we need to inline it later.  */
  if (! hack_decl_function_context (decl1))
    temporary_allocation ();

  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      ++minimal_parse_mode;
      last_tree = DECL_SAVED_TREE (decl1)
      = build_nt (EXPR_STMT, void_zero_node);
    }

  ++function_depth;

  if (DESTRUCTOR_NAME_P (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl1))
      && DECL_LANGUAGE (decl1) == lang_cplusplus)
    {
      dtor_label = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
      ctor_label = NULL_TREE;
    }
  else
    {
      dtor_label = NULL_TREE;
      if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (decl1))
      ctor_label = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
    }

  return 1;
}

/* Called after store_parm_decls for a function-try-block.  We need to update
   last_parm_cleanup_insn so that the base initializers for a constructor
   are run within this block, not before it.  */

void
expand_start_early_try_stmts ()
{
  expand_start_try_stmts ();
  last_parm_cleanup_insn = get_last_insn ();
}

/* Store the parameter declarations into the current function declaration.
   This is called after parsing the parameter declarations, before
   digesting the body of the function.

   Also install to binding contour return value identifier, if any.  */

void
store_parm_decls ()
{
  register tree fndecl = current_function_decl;
  register tree parm;
  int parms_have_cleanups = 0;
  tree cleanups = NULL_TREE;

  /* This is either a chain of PARM_DECLs (when a prototype is used).  */
  tree specparms = current_function_parms;

  /* This is a list of types declared among parms in a prototype.  */
  tree parmtags = current_function_parm_tags;

  /* This is a chain of any other decls that came in among the parm
     declarations.  If a parm is declared with  enum {foo, bar} x;
     then CONST_DECLs for foo and bar are put here.  */
  tree nonparms = NULL_TREE;

  if (toplevel_bindings_p ())
    fatal ("parse errors have confused me too much");

  /* Initialize RTL machinery.  */
  init_function_start (fndecl, input_filename, lineno);

  /* Declare __FUNCTION__ and __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ for this function.  */
  declare_function_name ();

  /* Create a binding level for the parms.  */
  expand_start_bindings (0);

  if (specparms != NULL_TREE)
    {
      /* This case is when the function was defined with an ANSI prototype.
       The parms already have decls, so we need not do anything here
       except record them as in effect
       and complain if any redundant old-style parm decls were written.  */

      register tree next;

      /* Must clear this because it might contain TYPE_DECLs declared
       at class level.  */
      storedecls (NULL_TREE);

      for (parm = nreverse (specparms); parm; parm = next)
      {
        next = TREE_CHAIN (parm);
        if (TREE_CODE (parm) == PARM_DECL)
          {
            tree cleanup;
            if (DECL_NAME (parm) == NULL_TREE)
            {
              pushdecl (parm);
            }
            else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (parm)) == VOID_TYPE)
            cp_error ("parameter `%D' declared void", parm);
            else
            {
              /* Now fill in DECL_REFERENCE_SLOT for any of the parm decls.
                 A parameter is assumed not to have any side effects.
                 If this should change for any reason, then this
                 will have to wrap the bashed reference type in a save_expr.
                 
                 Also, if the parameter type is declared to be an X
                 and there is an X(X&) constructor, we cannot lay it
                 into the stack (any more), so we make this parameter
                 look like it is really of reference type.  Functions
                 which pass parameters to this function will know to
                 create a temporary in their frame, and pass a reference
                 to that.  */

              if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (parm)) == REFERENCE_TYPE
                  && TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (parm))))
                SET_DECL_REFERENCE_SLOT (parm, convert_from_reference (parm));

              pushdecl (parm);
            }
            if (! processing_template_decl
              && (cleanup = maybe_build_cleanup (parm), cleanup))
            {
              expand_decl (parm);
              parms_have_cleanups = 1;

              /* Keep track of the cleanups.  */
              cleanups = tree_cons (parm, cleanup, cleanups);
            }
          }
        else
          {
            /* If we find an enum constant or a type tag,
             put it aside for the moment.  */
            TREE_CHAIN (parm) = NULL_TREE;
            nonparms = chainon (nonparms, parm);
          }
      }

      /* Get the decls in their original chain order
       and record in the function.  This is all and only the
       PARM_DECLs that were pushed into scope by the loop above.  */
      DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl) = getdecls ();

      storetags (chainon (parmtags, gettags ()));
    }
  else
    DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl) = NULL_TREE;

  /* Now store the final chain of decls for the arguments
     as the decl-chain of the current lexical scope.
     Put the enumerators in as well, at the front so that
     DECL_ARGUMENTS is not modified.  */

  storedecls (chainon (nonparms, DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl)));

  /* Initialize the RTL code for the function.  */
  DECL_SAVED_INSNS (fndecl) = NULL_RTX;
  if (! processing_template_decl)
    expand_function_start (fndecl, parms_have_cleanups);

  current_function_parms_stored = 1;

  /* If this function is `main', emit a call to `__main'
     to run global initializers, etc.  */
  if (DECL_MAIN_P (fndecl))
    expand_main_function ();

  /* Now that we have initialized the parms, we can start their
     cleanups.  We cannot do this before, since expand_decl_cleanup
     should not be called before the parm can be used.  */
  if (cleanups
      && ! processing_template_decl)      
    {
      for (cleanups = nreverse (cleanups); cleanups; cleanups = TREE_CHAIN (cleanups))
      {
        if (! expand_decl_cleanup (TREE_PURPOSE (cleanups), TREE_VALUE (cleanups)))
          cp_error ("parser lost in parsing declaration of `%D'",
                  TREE_PURPOSE (cleanups));
      }
    }

  /* Create a binding contour which can be used to catch
     cleanup-generated temporaries.  Also, if the return value needs or
     has initialization, deal with that now.  */
  if (parms_have_cleanups)
    {
      pushlevel (0);
      expand_start_bindings (0);
    }

  if (! processing_template_decl && flag_exceptions)
    {
      /* Do the starting of the exception specifications, if we have any.  */
      if (TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (TREE_TYPE (current_function_decl)))
      expand_start_eh_spec ();
    }

  last_parm_cleanup_insn = get_last_insn ();
  last_dtor_insn = get_last_insn ();
}

/* Bind a name and initialization to the return value of
   the current function.  */

void
store_return_init (return_id, init)
     tree return_id, init;
{
  tree decl = DECL_RESULT (current_function_decl);

  if (pedantic)
    /* Give this error as many times as there are occurrences,
       so that users can use Emacs compilation buffers to find
       and fix all such places.  */
    pedwarn ("ANSI C++ does not permit named return values");

  if (return_id != NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (DECL_NAME (decl) == NULL_TREE)
      {
        DECL_NAME (decl) = return_id;
        DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (decl) = return_id;
      }
      else
      cp_error ("return identifier `%D' already in place", decl);
    }

  /* Can't let this happen for constructors.  */
  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (current_function_decl))
    {
      error ("can't redefine default return value for constructors");
      return;
    }

  /* If we have a named return value, put that in our scope as well.  */
  if (DECL_NAME (decl) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      /* If this named return value comes in a register,
       put it in a pseudo-register.  */
      if (DECL_REGISTER (decl))
      {
        original_result_rtx = DECL_RTL (decl);
        DECL_RTL (decl) = gen_reg_rtx (DECL_MODE (decl));
      }

      /* Let `cp_finish_decl' know that this initializer is ok.  */
      DECL_INITIAL (decl) = init;
      pushdecl (decl);

      if (minimal_parse_mode)
      add_tree (build_min_nt (RETURN_INIT, return_id,
                        copy_to_permanent (init)));
      else
      cp_finish_decl (decl, init, NULL_TREE, 0, 0);
    }
}


/* Finish up a function declaration and compile that function
   all the way to assembler language output.  The free the storage
   for the function definition.

   This is called after parsing the body of the function definition.
   LINENO is the current line number.

   C++: CALL_POPLEVEL is non-zero if an extra call to poplevel
   (and expand_end_bindings) must be made to take care of the binding
   contour for the base initializers.  This is only relevant for
   constructors.

   NESTED is nonzero if we were in the middle of compiling another function
   when we started on this one.  */

void
finish_function (lineno, call_poplevel, nested)
     int lineno;
     int call_poplevel;
     int nested;
{
  register tree fndecl = current_function_decl;
  tree fntype, ctype = NULL_TREE;
  rtx last_parm_insn, insns;
  /* Label to use if this function is supposed to return a value.  */
  tree no_return_label = NULL_TREE;
  tree decls = NULL_TREE;

  /* When we get some parse errors, we can end up without a
     current_function_decl, so cope.  */
  if (fndecl == NULL_TREE)
    return;

  if (! nested && function_depth > 1)
    nested = 1;

  fntype = TREE_TYPE (fndecl);

/*  TREE_READONLY (fndecl) = 1;
    This caused &foo to be of type ptr-to-const-function
    which then got a warning when stored in a ptr-to-function variable.  */

  /* This happens on strange parse errors.  */
  if (! current_function_parms_stored)
    {
      call_poplevel = 0;
      store_parm_decls ();
    }

  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fndecl) && call_poplevel)
      {
        decls = getdecls ();
        expand_end_bindings (decls, decls != NULL_TREE, 0);
        poplevel (decls != NULL_TREE, 0, 0);
      }
    }
  else
    {
      if (write_symbols != NO_DEBUG /*&& TREE_CODE (fntype) != METHOD_TYPE*/)
      {
        tree ttype = target_type (fntype);
        tree parmdecl;

        if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (ttype))
          /* Let debugger know it should output info for this type.  */
          note_debug_info_needed (ttype);

        for (parmdecl = DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl); parmdecl; parmdecl = TREE_CHAIN (parmdecl))
          {
            ttype = target_type (TREE_TYPE (parmdecl));
            if (IS_AGGR_TYPE (ttype))
            /* Let debugger know it should output info for this type.  */
            note_debug_info_needed (ttype);
          }
      }

      /* Clean house because we will need to reorder insns here.  */
      do_pending_stack_adjust ();

      if (dtor_label)
      {
        tree binfo = TYPE_BINFO (current_class_type);
        tree cond = integer_one_node;
        tree exprstmt;
        tree in_charge_node = lookup_name (in_charge_identifier, 0);
        tree virtual_size;
        int ok_to_optimize_dtor = 0;
        int empty_dtor = get_last_insn () == last_dtor_insn;

        if (current_function_assigns_this)
          cond = build (NE_EXPR, boolean_type_node,
                    current_class_ptr, integer_zero_node);
        else
          {
            int n_baseclasses = CLASSTYPE_N_BASECLASSES (current_class_type);

            /* If this destructor is empty, then we don't need to check
             whether `this' is NULL in some cases.  */
            if ((flag_this_is_variable & 1) == 0)
            ok_to_optimize_dtor = 1;
            else if (empty_dtor)
            ok_to_optimize_dtor
              = (n_baseclasses == 0
                 || (n_baseclasses == 1
                   && TYPE_HAS_DESTRUCTOR (TYPE_BINFO_BASETYPE (current_class_type, 0))));
          }

        /* These initializations might go inline.  Protect
           the binding level of the parms.  */
        pushlevel (0);
        expand_start_bindings (0);

        if (current_function_assigns_this)
          {
            current_function_assigns_this = 0;
            current_function_just_assigned_this = 0;
          }

        /* Generate the code to call destructor on base class.
           If this destructor belongs to a class with virtual
           functions, then set the virtual function table
           pointer to represent the type of our base class.  */

        /* This side-effect makes call to `build_delete' generate the
           code we have to have at the end of this destructor.  */
        TYPE_HAS_DESTRUCTOR (current_class_type) = 0;

        /* These are two cases where we cannot delegate deletion.  */
        if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type)
            || TYPE_GETS_REG_DELETE (current_class_type))
          exprstmt = build_delete (current_class_type, current_class_ref, integer_zero_node,
                             LOOKUP_NONVIRTUAL|LOOKUP_DESTRUCTOR|LOOKUP_NORMAL, 0);
        else
          exprstmt = build_delete (current_class_type, current_class_ref, in_charge_node,
                             LOOKUP_NONVIRTUAL|LOOKUP_DESTRUCTOR|LOOKUP_NORMAL, 0);

        /* If we did not assign to this, then `this' is non-zero at
           the end of a destructor.  As a special optimization, don't
           emit test if this is an empty destructor.  If it does nothing,
           it does nothing.  If it calls a base destructor, the base
           destructor will perform the test.  */

        if (exprstmt != error_mark_node
            && (TREE_CODE (exprstmt) != NOP_EXPR
              || TREE_OPERAND (exprstmt, 0) != integer_zero_node
              || TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type)))
          {
            expand_label (dtor_label);
            if (cond != integer_one_node)
            expand_start_cond (cond, 0);
            if (exprstmt != void_zero_node)
            /* Don't call `expand_expr_stmt' if we're not going to do
               anything, since -Wall will give a diagnostic.  */
            expand_expr_stmt (exprstmt);

            /* Run destructor on all virtual baseclasses.  */
            if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type))
            {
              tree vbases = nreverse (copy_list (CLASSTYPE_VBASECLASSES (current_class_type)));
              expand_start_cond (build (BIT_AND_EXPR, integer_type_node,
                                  in_charge_node, integer_two_node), 0);
              while (vbases)
                {
                  if (TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (BINFO_TYPE (vbases)))
                  {
                    tree vb = get_vbase
                      (BINFO_TYPE (vbases),
                       TYPE_BINFO (current_class_type));
                    expand_expr_stmt
                      (build_scoped_method_call
                       (current_class_ref, vb, dtor_identifier,
                        build_expr_list (NULL_TREE, integer_zero_node)));
                  }
                  vbases = TREE_CHAIN (vbases);
                }
              expand_end_cond ();
            }

            do_pending_stack_adjust ();
            if (cond != integer_one_node)
            expand_end_cond ();
          }

        TYPE_HAS_DESTRUCTOR (current_class_type) = 1;

        virtual_size = c_sizeof (current_class_type);

        /* At the end, call delete if that's what's requested.  */

        /* FDIS sez: At the point of definition of a virtual destructor
             (including an implicit definition), non-placement operator
             delete shall be looked up in the scope of the destructor's
             class and if found shall be accessible and unambiguous.

           This is somewhat unclear, but I take it to mean that if the
           class only defines placement deletes we don't do anything here.
           So we pass LOOKUP_SPECULATIVELY; delete_sanity will complain
           for us if they ever try to delete one of these.  */

        if (TYPE_GETS_REG_DELETE (current_class_type)
            || TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type))
          exprstmt = build_op_delete_call
            (DELETE_EXPR, current_class_ptr, virtual_size,
             LOOKUP_NORMAL | LOOKUP_SPECULATIVELY, NULL_TREE);
        else
          exprstmt = NULL_TREE;

        if (exprstmt)
          {
            cond = build (BIT_AND_EXPR, integer_type_node,
                      in_charge_node, integer_one_node);
            expand_start_cond (cond, 0);
            expand_expr_stmt (exprstmt);
            expand_end_cond ();
          }

        /* End of destructor.  */
        expand_end_bindings (NULL_TREE, getdecls () != NULL_TREE, 0);
        poplevel (2, 0, 0);   /* XXX change to 1 */

        /* Back to the top of destructor.  */
        /* Don't execute destructor code if `this' is NULL.  */

        start_sequence ();

        /* If the dtor is empty, and we know there is not possible way we
           could use any vtable entries, before they are possibly set by
           a base class dtor, we don't have to setup the vtables, as we
           know that any base class dtoring will set up any vtables it
           needs.  We avoid MI, because one base class dtor can do a
           virtual dispatch to an overridden function that would need to
           have a non-related vtable set up, we cannot avoid setting up
           vtables in that case.  We could change this to see if there is
           just one vtable.  */
        if (! empty_dtor || TYPE_USES_COMPLEX_INHERITANCE (current_class_type))
          {
            /* Make all virtual function table pointers in non-virtual base
             classes point to CURRENT_CLASS_TYPE's virtual function
             tables.  */
            expand_direct_vtbls_init (binfo, binfo, 1, 0, current_class_ptr);

            if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (current_class_type))
            expand_indirect_vtbls_init (binfo, current_class_ref, current_class_ptr);
          }
        
        if (! ok_to_optimize_dtor)
          {
            cond = build_binary_op (NE_EXPR,
                              current_class_ptr, integer_zero_node, 1);
            expand_start_cond (cond, 0);
          }

        insns = get_insns ();
        end_sequence ();

        last_parm_insn = get_first_nonparm_insn ();
        if (last_parm_insn == NULL_RTX)
          last_parm_insn = get_last_insn ();
        else
          last_parm_insn = previous_insn (last_parm_insn);

        emit_insns_after (insns, last_parm_insn);

        if (! ok_to_optimize_dtor)
          expand_end_cond ();
      }
      else if (current_function_assigns_this)
      {
        /* Does not need to call emit_base_init, because
           that is done (if needed) just after assignment to this
           is seen.  */

        if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (current_function_decl))
          {
            end_protect_partials ();
            expand_label (ctor_label);
            ctor_label = NULL_TREE;

            if (call_poplevel)
            {
              decls = getdecls ();
              expand_end_bindings (decls, decls != NULL_TREE, 0);
              poplevel (decls != NULL_TREE, 0, 0);
            }
            /* c_expand_return knows to return 'this' from a constructor.  */
            c_expand_return (NULL_TREE);
          }
        else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (DECL_RESULT (current_function_decl))) != VOID_TYPE
               && return_label != NULL_RTX)
          no_return_label = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);

        current_function_assigns_this = 0;
        current_function_just_assigned_this = 0;
        base_init_expr = NULL_TREE;
      }
      else if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fndecl))
      {
        tree cond = NULL_TREE, thenclause = NULL_TREE;
        /* Allow constructor for a type to get a new instance of the object
           using `build_new'.  */
        tree abstract_virtuals = CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (current_class_type);
        CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (current_class_type) = NULL_TREE;

        DECL_RETURNS_FIRST_ARG (fndecl) = 1;

        if (flag_this_is_variable > 0)
          {
            cond = build_binary_op (EQ_EXPR,
                              current_class_ptr, integer_zero_node, 1);
            thenclause = build_modify_expr (current_class_ptr, NOP_EXPR,
                                    build_new (NULL_TREE, current_class_type, void_type_node, 0));
          }

        CLASSTYPE_ABSTRACT_VIRTUALS (current_class_type) = abstract_virtuals;

        start_sequence ();

        if (flag_this_is_variable > 0)
          {
            expand_start_cond (cond, 0);
            expand_expr_stmt (thenclause);
            expand_end_cond ();
          }

        /* Emit insns from `emit_base_init' which sets up virtual
           function table pointer(s).  */
        if (base_init_expr)
          {
            expand_expr_stmt (base_init_expr);
            base_init_expr = NULL_TREE;
          }

        insns = get_insns ();
        end_sequence ();

        /* This is where the body of the constructor begins.  */

        emit_insns_after (insns, last_parm_cleanup_insn);

        end_protect_partials ();

        /* This is where the body of the constructor ends.  */
        expand_label (ctor_label);
        ctor_label = NULL_TREE;

        if (call_poplevel)
          {
            decls = getdecls ();
            expand_end_bindings (decls, decls != NULL_TREE, 0);
            poplevel (decls != NULL_TREE, 1, 0);
          }

        /* c_expand_return knows to return 'this' from a constructor.  */
        c_expand_return (NULL_TREE);

        current_function_assigns_this = 0;
        current_function_just_assigned_this = 0;
      }
      else if (DECL_MAIN_P (fndecl))
      {
        /* Make it so that `main' always returns 0 by default.  */
#ifdef VMS
        c_expand_return (integer_one_node);
#else
        c_expand_return (integer_zero_node);
#endif
      }
      else if (return_label != NULL_RTX
             && current_function_return_value == NULL_TREE
             && ! DECL_NAME (DECL_RESULT (current_function_decl)))
      no_return_label = build_decl (LABEL_DECL, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);

      if (flag_exceptions)
      expand_exception_blocks ();

      /* If this function is supposed to return a value, ensure that
       we do not fall into the cleanups by mistake.  The end of our
       function will look like this:
       
       user code (may have return stmt somewhere)
       goto no_return_label
       cleanup_label:
       cleanups
       goto return_label
       no_return_label:
       NOTE_INSN_FUNCTION_END
       return_label:
       things for return
       
       If the user omits a return stmt in the USER CODE section, we
       will have a control path which reaches NOTE_INSN_FUNCTION_END.
       Otherwise, we won't.  */
      if (no_return_label)
      {
        DECL_CONTEXT (no_return_label) = fndecl;
        DECL_INITIAL (no_return_label) = error_mark_node;
        DECL_SOURCE_FILE (no_return_label) = input_filename;
        DECL_SOURCE_LINE (no_return_label) = lineno;
        expand_goto (no_return_label);
      }

      if (cleanup_label)
      {
        /* Remove the binding contour which is used
           to catch cleanup-generated temporaries.  */
        expand_end_bindings (0, 0, 0);
        poplevel (0, 0, 0);

        /* Emit label at beginning of cleanup code for parameters.  */
        emit_label (cleanup_label);
      }

      /* Get return value into register if that's where it's supposed to be.  */
      if (original_result_rtx)
      fixup_result_decl (DECL_RESULT (fndecl), original_result_rtx);

      /* Finish building code that will trigger warnings if users forget
       to make their functions return values.  */
      if (no_return_label || cleanup_label)
      emit_jump (return_label);
      if (no_return_label)
      {
        /* We don't need to call `expand_*_return' here because we
           don't need any cleanups here--this path of code is only
           for error checking purposes.  */
        expand_label (no_return_label);
      }

      /* Generate rtl for function exit.  */
      expand_function_end (input_filename, lineno, 1);
    }

  /* This must come after expand_function_end because cleanups might
     have declarations (from inline functions) that need to go into
     this function's blocks.  */
  if (current_binding_level->parm_flag != 1)
    my_friendly_abort (122);
  poplevel (1, 0, 1);

  /* Reset scope for C++: if we were in the scope of a class,
     then when we finish this function, we are not longer so.
     This cannot be done until we know for sure that no more
     class members will ever be referenced in this function
     (i.e., calls to destructors).  */
  if (current_class_name)
    {
      ctype = current_class_type;
      pop_nested_class (1);
    }
  else
    pop_memoized_context (1);

  /* Must mark the RESULT_DECL as being in this function.  */
  DECL_CONTEXT (DECL_RESULT (fndecl)) = fndecl;

  /* Set the BLOCK_SUPERCONTEXT of the outermost function scope to point
     to the FUNCTION_DECL node itself.  */
  BLOCK_SUPERCONTEXT (DECL_INITIAL (fndecl)) = fndecl;

  if (! processing_template_decl)
    {
      int saved_flag_keep_inline_functions =
      flag_keep_inline_functions;

      /* So we can tell if jump_optimize sets it to 1.  */
      can_reach_end = 0;

      if (DECL_CONTEXT (fndecl) != NULL_TREE
        && hack_decl_function_context (fndecl))
      /* Trick rest_of_compilation into not deferring output of this
         function, even if it is inline, since the rtl_obstack for
         this function is the function_obstack of the enclosing
         function and will be deallocated when the enclosing
         function is gone.  See save_tree_status.  */
      flag_keep_inline_functions = 1;

      /* Run the optimizers and output the assembler code for this
         function.  */

      if (DECL_ARTIFICIAL (fndecl))
      {
        /* Do we really *want* to inline this synthesized method?  */

        int save_fif = flag_inline_functions;
        flag_inline_functions = 1;

        /* Turn off DECL_INLINE for the moment so function_cannot_inline_p
           will check our size.  */
        DECL_INLINE (fndecl) = 0;

        rest_of_compilation (fndecl);
        flag_inline_functions = save_fif;
      }
      else
      rest_of_compilation (fndecl);

      flag_keep_inline_functions = saved_flag_keep_inline_functions;

      if (DECL_SAVED_INSNS (fndecl) && ! TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (fndecl))
      {
        /* Set DECL_EXTERNAL so that assemble_external will be called as
           necessary.  We'll clear it again in finish_file.  */
        if (! DECL_EXTERNAL (fndecl))
          DECL_NOT_REALLY_EXTERN (fndecl) = 1;
        DECL_EXTERNAL (fndecl) = 1;
        mark_inline_for_output (fndecl);
      }

      if (ctype && TREE_ASM_WRITTEN (fndecl))
      note_debug_info_needed (ctype);

      current_function_returns_null |= can_reach_end;

      /* Since we don't normally go through c_expand_return for constructors,
       this normally gets the wrong value.
       Also, named return values have their return codes emitted after
       NOTE_INSN_FUNCTION_END, confusing jump.c.  */
      if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fndecl)
        || DECL_NAME (DECL_RESULT (fndecl)) != NULL_TREE)
      current_function_returns_null = 0;

      if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (fndecl) && current_function_returns_null)
      cp_warning ("`noreturn' function `%D' does return", fndecl);
      else if ((warn_return_type || pedantic)
             && current_function_returns_null
             && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (fntype)) != VOID_TYPE)
      {
        /* If this function returns non-void and control can drop through,
           complain.  */
        cp_warning ("control reaches end of non-void function `%D'", fndecl);
      }
      /* With just -W, complain only if function returns both with
       and without a value.  */
      else if (extra_warnings
             && current_function_returns_value && current_function_returns_null)
      warning ("this function may return with or without a value");
    }

  --function_depth;

  /* Free all the tree nodes making up this function.  */
  /* Switch back to allocating nodes permanently
     until we start another function.  */
  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      --minimal_parse_mode;
      DECL_SAVED_TREE (fndecl) = TREE_CHAIN (DECL_SAVED_TREE (fndecl));
    }

  if (! nested)
    permanent_allocation (1);

  if (DECL_SAVED_INSNS (fndecl) == NULL_RTX)
    {
      tree t;

      /* Stop pointing to the local nodes about to be freed.  */
      /* But DECL_INITIAL must remain nonzero so we know this
       was an actual function definition.  */
      DECL_INITIAL (fndecl) = error_mark_node;
      for (t = DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl); t; t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
      DECL_RTL (t) = DECL_INCOMING_RTL (t) = NULL_RTX;
    }

  if (DECL_STATIC_CONSTRUCTOR (fndecl))
    static_ctors = perm_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, fndecl, static_ctors);
  if (DECL_STATIC_DESTRUCTOR (fndecl))
    static_dtors = perm_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, fndecl, static_dtors);

  if (! nested)
    {
      /* Let the error reporting routines know that we're outside a
         function.  For a nested function, this value is used in
         pop_cp_function_context and then reset via pop_function_context.  */
      current_function_decl = NULL_TREE;
    }

  named_label_uses = NULL;
  current_class_ptr = NULL_TREE;
  current_class_ref = NULL_TREE;
}

/* Create the FUNCTION_DECL for a function definition.
   LINE1 is the line number that the definition absolutely begins on.
   LINE2 is the line number that the name of the function appears on.
   DECLSPECS and DECLARATOR are the parts of the declaration;
   they describe the return type and the name of the function,
   but twisted together in a fashion that parallels the syntax of C.

   This function creates a binding context for the function body
   as well as setting up the FUNCTION_DECL in current_function_decl.

   Returns a FUNCTION_DECL on success.

   If the DECLARATOR is not suitable for a function (it defines a datum
   instead), we return 0, which tells yyparse to report a parse error.

   May return void_type_node indicating that this method is actually
   a friend.  See grokfield for more details.

   Came here with a `.pushlevel' .

   DO NOT MAKE ANY CHANGES TO THIS CODE WITHOUT MAKING CORRESPONDING
   CHANGES TO CODE IN `grokfield'.  */

tree
start_method (declspecs, declarator)
     tree declarator, declspecs;
{
  tree fndecl = grokdeclarator (declarator, declspecs, MEMFUNCDEF, 0,
                        NULL_TREE);

  /* Something too ugly to handle.  */
  if (fndecl == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;

  /* Pass friends other than inline friend functions back.  */
  if (fndecl == void_type_node)
    return fndecl;

  if (TREE_CODE (fndecl) != FUNCTION_DECL)
    /* Not a function, tell parser to report parse error.  */
    return NULL_TREE;

  if (IS_SIGNATURE (current_class_type))
    IS_DEFAULT_IMPLEMENTATION (fndecl) = 1;

  if (DECL_IN_AGGR_P (fndecl))
    {
      if (IDENTIFIER_ERROR_LOCUS (DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME (fndecl)) != current_class_type)
      {
        if (DECL_CONTEXT (fndecl) 
            && TREE_CODE( DECL_CONTEXT (fndecl)) != NAMESPACE_DECL)
          cp_error ("`%D' is already defined in class %s", fndecl,
                       TYPE_NAME_STRING (DECL_CONTEXT (fndecl)));
      }
      return void_type_node;
    }

  DECL_THIS_INLINE (fndecl) = 1;

  if (flag_default_inline)
    DECL_INLINE (fndecl) = 1;

  if (processing_template_decl)
    fndecl = push_template_decl (fndecl);

  /* We read in the parameters on the maybepermanent_obstack,
     but we won't be getting back to them until after we
     may have clobbered them.  So the call to preserve_data
     will keep them safe.  */
  preserve_data ();

  if (! DECL_FRIEND_P (fndecl))
    {
      if (TREE_CHAIN (fndecl))
      {
        fndecl = copy_node (fndecl);
        TREE_CHAIN (fndecl) = NULL_TREE;
      }

      if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fndecl))
      {
        if (! grok_ctor_properties (current_class_type, fndecl))
          return void_type_node;
      }
      else if (IDENTIFIER_OPNAME_P (DECL_NAME (fndecl)))
      grok_op_properties (fndecl, DECL_VIRTUAL_P (fndecl), 0);
    }

  cp_finish_decl (fndecl, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, 0, 0);

  /* Make a place for the parms */
  pushlevel (0);
  current_binding_level->parm_flag = 1;
  
  DECL_IN_AGGR_P (fndecl) = 1;
  return fndecl;
}

/* Go through the motions of finishing a function definition.
   We don't compile this method until after the whole class has
   been processed.

   FINISH_METHOD must return something that looks as though it
   came from GROKFIELD (since we are defining a method, after all).

   This is called after parsing the body of the function definition.
   STMTS is the chain of statements that makes up the function body.

   DECL is the ..._DECL that `start_method' provided.  */

tree
finish_method (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  register tree fndecl = decl;
  tree old_initial;

  register tree link;

  if (decl == void_type_node)
    return decl;

  old_initial = DECL_INITIAL (fndecl);

  /* Undo the level for the parms (from start_method).
     This is like poplevel, but it causes nothing to be
     saved.  Saving information here confuses symbol-table
     output routines.  Besides, this information will
     be correctly output when this method is actually
     compiled.  */

  /* Clear out the meanings of the local variables of this level;
     also record in each decl which block it belongs to.  */

  for (link = current_binding_level->names; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
    {
      if (DECL_NAME (link) != NULL_TREE)
      IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (link)) = 0;
      my_friendly_assert (TREE_CODE (link) != FUNCTION_DECL, 163);
      DECL_CONTEXT (link) = NULL_TREE;
    }

  /* Restore all name-meanings of the outer levels
     that were shadowed by this level.  */

  for (link = current_binding_level->shadowed; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
      IDENTIFIER_LOCAL_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link)) = TREE_VALUE (link);
  for (link = current_binding_level->class_shadowed;
       link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
    IDENTIFIER_CLASS_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link)) = TREE_VALUE (link);
  for (link = current_binding_level->type_shadowed;
       link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
    SET_IDENTIFIER_TYPE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (link), TREE_VALUE (link));

  GNU_xref_end_scope ((HOST_WIDE_INT) current_binding_level,
                  (HOST_WIDE_INT) current_binding_level->level_chain,
                  current_binding_level->parm_flag,
                  current_binding_level->keep);

  poplevel (0, 0, 0);

  DECL_INITIAL (fndecl) = old_initial;

  /* We used to check if the context of FNDECL was different from
     current_class_type as another way to get inside here.  This didn't work
     for String.cc in libg++.  */
  if (DECL_FRIEND_P (fndecl))
    {
      CLASSTYPE_INLINE_FRIENDS (current_class_type)
      = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, fndecl, CLASSTYPE_INLINE_FRIENDS (current_class_type));
      decl = void_type_node;
    }

  return decl;
}

/* Called when a new struct TYPE is defined.
   If this structure or union completes the type of any previous
   variable declaration, lay it out and output its rtl.  */

void
hack_incomplete_structures (type)
     tree type;
{
  tree *list;

  if (current_binding_level->incomplete == NULL_TREE)
    return;

  if (!type) /* Don't do this for class templates.  */
    return;

  for (list = &current_binding_level->incomplete; *list; )
    {
      tree decl = TREE_VALUE (*list);
      if ((decl && TREE_TYPE (decl) == type)
        || (TREE_TYPE (decl)
            && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == ARRAY_TYPE
            && TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == type))
      {
        int toplevel = toplevel_bindings_p ();
        if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == ARRAY_TYPE
            && TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (decl)) == type)
          layout_type (TREE_TYPE (decl));
        layout_decl (decl, 0);
        rest_of_decl_compilation (decl, NULL_PTR, toplevel, 0);
        if (! toplevel)
          {
            tree cleanup;
            expand_decl (decl);
            cleanup = maybe_build_cleanup (decl);
            expand_decl_init (decl);
            if (! expand_decl_cleanup (decl, cleanup))
            cp_error ("parser lost in parsing declaration of `%D'",
                    decl);
          }
        *list = TREE_CHAIN (*list);
      }
      else
      list = &TREE_CHAIN (*list);
    }
}

/* If DECL is of a type which needs a cleanup, build that cleanup here.
   See build_delete for information about AUTO_DELETE.

   Don't build these on the momentary obstack; they must live
   the life of the binding contour.  */

static tree
maybe_build_cleanup_1 (decl, auto_delete)
     tree decl, auto_delete;
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (decl);
  if (TYPE_NEEDS_DESTRUCTOR (type))
    {
      int temp = 0, flags = LOOKUP_NORMAL|LOOKUP_DESTRUCTOR;
      tree rval;

      if (TREE_CODE (decl) != PARM_DECL)
      temp = suspend_momentary ();

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
      rval = decl;
      else
      {
        mark_addressable (decl);
        rval = build_unary_op (ADDR_EXPR, decl, 0);
      }

      /* Optimize for space over speed here.  */
      if (! TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (type)
        || flag_expensive_optimizations)
      flags |= LOOKUP_NONVIRTUAL;

      rval = build_delete (TREE_TYPE (rval), rval, auto_delete, flags, 0);

      if (TYPE_USES_VIRTUAL_BASECLASSES (type)
        && ! TYPE_HAS_DESTRUCTOR (type))
      rval = build_compound_expr (expr_tree_cons (NULL_TREE, rval,
                                     build_expr_list (NULL_TREE, build_vbase_delete (type, decl))));

      if (TREE_CODE (decl) != PARM_DECL)
      resume_momentary (temp);

      return rval;
    }
  return 0;
}

/* If DECL is of a type which needs a cleanup, build that cleanup
   here.  The cleanup does free the storage with a call to delete.  */

tree
maybe_build_cleanup_and_delete (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  return maybe_build_cleanup_1 (decl, integer_three_node);
}

/* If DECL is of a type which needs a cleanup, build that cleanup
   here.  The cleanup does not free the storage with a call a delete.  */

tree
maybe_build_cleanup (decl)
     tree decl;
{
  return maybe_build_cleanup_1 (decl, integer_two_node);
}

/* Expand a C++ expression at the statement level.
   This is needed to ferret out nodes which have UNKNOWN_TYPE.
   The C++ type checker should get all of these out when
   expressions are combined with other, type-providing, expressions,
   leaving only orphan expressions, such as:

   &class::bar;         / / takes its address, but does nothing with it.  */

void
cplus_expand_expr_stmt (exp)
     tree exp;
{
  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      add_tree (build_min_nt (EXPR_STMT, exp));
      return;
    }

  /* Arrange for all temps to disappear.  */
  expand_start_target_temps ();

  if (TREE_TYPE (exp) == unknown_type_node)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (exp) == ADDR_EXPR || TREE_CODE (exp) == TREE_LIST)
      error ("address of overloaded function with no contextual type information");
      else if (TREE_CODE (exp) == COMPONENT_REF)
      warning ("useless reference to a member function name, did you forget the ()?");
    }
  else
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (exp) == FUNCTION_DECL)
      {
        cp_warning ("reference, not call, to function `%D'", exp);
        warning ("at this point in file");
      }

#if 0
      /* We should do this eventually, but right now this causes regex.o from
       libg++ to miscompile, and tString to core dump.  */
      exp = build1 (CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (exp), exp);
#endif

      /* Strip unused implicit INDIRECT_REFs of references.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (exp) == INDIRECT_REF
        && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 0))) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
      exp = TREE_OPERAND (exp, 0);

      /* If we don't do this, we end up down inside expand_expr
       trying to do TYPE_MODE on the ERROR_MARK, and really
       go outside the bounds of the type.  */
      if (exp != error_mark_node)
      expand_expr_stmt (break_out_cleanups (exp));
    }

  /* Clean up any pending cleanups.  This happens when a function call
     returns a cleanup-needing value that nobody uses.  */
  expand_end_target_temps ();
}

/* When a stmt has been parsed, this function is called.

   Currently, this function only does something within a
   constructor's scope: if a stmt has just assigned to this,
   and we are in a derived class, we call `emit_base_init'.  */

void
finish_stmt ()
{
  extern struct nesting *cond_stack, *loop_stack, *case_stack;

  
  if (current_function_assigns_this
      || ! current_function_just_assigned_this)
    return;
  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (current_function_decl))
    {
      /* Constructors must wait until we are out of control
       zones before calling base constructors.  */
      if (cond_stack || loop_stack || case_stack)
      return;
      expand_expr_stmt (base_init_expr);
      check_base_init (current_class_type);
    }
  current_function_assigns_this = 1;
}

/* Change a static member function definition into a FUNCTION_TYPE, instead
   of the METHOD_TYPE that we create when it's originally parsed.

   WARNING: DO NOT pass &TREE_TYPE (decl) to FN or &TYPE_ARG_TYPES
   (TREE_TYPE (decl)) to ARGTYPES, as doing so will corrupt the types of
   other decls.  Either pass the addresses of local variables or NULL.  */

void
revert_static_member_fn (decl, fn, argtypes)
     tree *decl, *fn, *argtypes;
{
  tree tmp;
  tree function = fn ? *fn : TREE_TYPE (*decl);
  tree args = argtypes ? *argtypes : TYPE_ARG_TYPES (function);

  if (TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (args))))
    cp_error ("static member function `%#D' declared const", *decl);
  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_VALUE (args))))
    cp_error ("static member function `%#D' declared volatile", *decl);

  args = TREE_CHAIN (args);
  tmp = build_function_type (TREE_TYPE (function), args);
  tmp = build_type_variant (tmp, TYPE_READONLY (function),
                      TYPE_VOLATILE (function));
  tmp = build_exception_variant (tmp,
                         TYPE_RAISES_EXCEPTIONS (function));
  TREE_TYPE (*decl) = tmp;
  if (DECL_ARGUMENTS (*decl))
    DECL_ARGUMENTS (*decl) = TREE_CHAIN (DECL_ARGUMENTS (*decl));
  DECL_STATIC_FUNCTION_P (*decl) = 1;
  if (fn)
    *fn = tmp;
  if (argtypes)
    *argtypes = args;
}

int
id_in_current_class (id)
     tree id;
{
  return !!purpose_member (id, class_binding_level->class_shadowed);
}

struct cp_function
{
  int returns_value;
  int returns_null;
  int warn_about_return_type;
  int assigns_this;
  int just_assigned_this;
  int parms_stored;
  int temp_name_counter;
  tree named_labels;
  tree shadowed_labels;
  tree ctor_label;
  tree dtor_label;
  rtx last_dtor_insn;
  rtx last_parm_cleanup_insn;
  tree base_init_list;
  tree member_init_list;
  tree base_init_expr;
  tree current_class_ptr;
  tree current_class_ref;
  rtx result_rtx;
  struct cp_function *next;
  struct binding_level *binding_level;
  int static_labelno;
};

static struct cp_function *cp_function_chain;

extern int temp_name_counter;

/* Save and reinitialize the variables
   used during compilation of a C++ function.  */

void
push_cp_function_context (context)
     tree context;
{
  struct cp_function *p
    = (struct cp_function *) xmalloc (sizeof (struct cp_function));

  push_function_context_to (context);

  p->next = cp_function_chain;
  cp_function_chain = p;

  p->named_labels = named_labels;
  p->shadowed_labels = shadowed_labels;
  p->returns_value = current_function_returns_value;
  p->returns_null = current_function_returns_null;
  p->warn_about_return_type = warn_about_return_type;
  p->binding_level = current_binding_level;
  p->ctor_label = ctor_label;
  p->dtor_label = dtor_label;
  p->last_dtor_insn = last_dtor_insn;
  p->last_parm_cleanup_insn = last_parm_cleanup_insn;
  p->assigns_this = current_function_assigns_this;
  p->just_assigned_this = current_function_just_assigned_this;
  p->parms_stored = current_function_parms_stored;
  p->result_rtx = original_result_rtx;
  p->base_init_expr = base_init_expr;
  p->temp_name_counter = temp_name_counter;
  p->base_init_list = current_base_init_list;
  p->member_init_list = current_member_init_list;
  p->current_class_ptr = current_class_ptr;
  p->current_class_ref = current_class_ref;
  p->static_labelno = static_labelno;
}

/* Restore the variables used during compilation of a C++ function.  */

void
pop_cp_function_context (context)
     tree context;
{
  struct cp_function *p = cp_function_chain;
  tree link;

  /* Bring back all the labels that were shadowed.  */
  for (link = shadowed_labels; link; link = TREE_CHAIN (link))
    if (DECL_NAME (TREE_VALUE (link)) != 0)
      SET_IDENTIFIER_LABEL_VALUE (DECL_NAME (TREE_VALUE (link)),
                          TREE_VALUE (link));

  pop_function_context_from (context);

  cp_function_chain = p->next;

  named_labels = p->named_labels;
  shadowed_labels = p->shadowed_labels;
  current_function_returns_value = p->returns_value;
  current_function_returns_null = p->returns_null;
  warn_about_return_type = p->warn_about_return_type;
  current_binding_level = p->binding_level;
  ctor_label = p->ctor_label;
  dtor_label = p->dtor_label;
  last_dtor_insn = p->last_dtor_insn;
  last_parm_cleanup_insn = p->last_parm_cleanup_insn;
  current_function_assigns_this = p->assigns_this;
  current_function_just_assigned_this = p->just_assigned_this;
  current_function_parms_stored = p->parms_stored;
  original_result_rtx = p->result_rtx;
  base_init_expr = p->base_init_expr;
  temp_name_counter = p->temp_name_counter;
  current_base_init_list = p->base_init_list;
  current_member_init_list = p->member_init_list;
  current_class_ptr = p->current_class_ptr;
  current_class_ref = p->current_class_ref;
  static_labelno = p->static_labelno;

  free (p);
}

int
in_function_p ()
{
  return function_depth != 0;
}

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